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See detailFinite-Time Attitude Synchronization with Distributed Discontinuous Protocols
Wei, Jieqiang; Zhang, Silun; Adaldo, Antonio et al

in IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control (in press)

The finite-time attitude synchronization problem is considered in this paper, where the rotation of each rigid body is expressed using the axis-angle representation. Two discontinuous and distributed ... [more ▼]

The finite-time attitude synchronization problem is considered in this paper, where the rotation of each rigid body is expressed using the axis-angle representation. Two discontinuous and distributed controllers using the vectorized signum function are proposed, which guarantee almost global and local convergence, respectively. Filippov solutions and non-smooth analysis techniques are adopted to handle the discontinuities. Sufficient conditions are provided to guarantee finite-time convergence and boundedness of the solutions. Simulation examples are provided to verify the performances of the control protocols designed in this paper. [less ▲]

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See detailRandom or Evolutionary Search for Object-Oriented Test Suite Generation?
Shamshiri; Rojas; Gazzola et al

in Software Testing, Verification & Reliability (in press)

An important aim in software testing is constructing a test suite with high structural code coverage – that is, ensuring that most if not all of the code under test has been executed by the test cases ... [more ▼]

An important aim in software testing is constructing a test suite with high structural code coverage – that is, ensuring that most if not all of the code under test has been executed by the test cases comprising the test suite. Several search-based techniques have proved successful at automatically generating tests that achieve high coverage. However, despite the well-established arguments behind using evolutionary search algorithms (e.g., genetic algorithms) in preference to random search, it remains an open question whether the benefits can actually be observed in practice when generating unit test suites for object-oriented classes. In this paper, we report an empirical study on the effects of using evolutionary algorithms (including a genetic algorithm and chemical reaction optimization) to generate test suites, compared with generating test suites incrementally with random search. We apply the EVOSUITE unit test suite generator to 1,000 classes randomly selected from the SF110 corpus of open source projects. Surprisingly, the results show that the difference is much smaller than one might expect: While evolutionary search covers more branches of the type where standard fitness functions provide guidance, we observed that, in practice, the vast majority of branches do not provide any guidance to the search. These results suggest that, although evolutionary algorithms are more effective at covering complex branches, a random search may suffice to achieve high coverage of most object-oriented classes. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of nutrition and literacy on the cognitive functioning of elderly poor individuals
Leist, Anja UL; Novella, Rafael; Olivera, Javier

in Journal of Aging & Social Policy (in press)

Maintaining cognitive function is a prerequisite of living independently, which is a highly valued component in older individuals’ wellbeing. In this paper we assess the role of early-life and later-life ... [more ▼]

Maintaining cognitive function is a prerequisite of living independently, which is a highly valued component in older individuals’ wellbeing. In this paper we assess the role of early-life and later-life nutritional status, education and literacy on the cognitive functioning of older adults living in poverty in Peru. We exploit the baseline sample of the Peruvian non-contributory pension program Pension 65 and find that current nutritional status and literacy are strongly associated with cognitive functioning for poor older adults. In a context of rising popularity of non-contributory pension programs around the world, our study intends to contribute to the discussion of designing accompanying measures to the pension transfer, such as adult literacy programs and monitoring of adequate nutrition of older adults. [less ▲]

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See detailDesigning Sustainable Technologies, Products and Policies
Benetto, Enrico; Gericke, Kilian UL; Guiton, Mélanie

Book published by Springer (in press)

This book provides insight into the implementation of Life Cycle approaches along the entire business value chain, supporting environmental, social and economic sustainability related to the development ... [more ▼]

This book provides insight into the implementation of Life Cycle approaches along the entire business value chain, supporting environmental, social and economic sustainability related to the development of industrial technologies, products, services and policies; and the development and management of smart agricultural systems, smart mobility systems, urban infrastructures and energy for the built environment. The book is based on papers presented at the 8th International Life Cycle Management Conference that took place from September 3-6, 2017 in Luxembourg, and which was organized by the Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST) and the University of Luxembourg in the framework of the LCM Conference Series. [less ▲]

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See detailPro-Poorness Orderings
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Chakravarty, Satya; Chattopadhyay, Nachiketa

in Review of Income and Wealth (in press)

An indicator of pro-poorness of a growth profile associated with a distribution of income is a measure of the extent to which growth is biased towards the poor. This paper proposes a general approach to ... [more ▼]

An indicator of pro-poorness of a growth profile associated with a distribution of income is a measure of the extent to which growth is biased towards the poor. This paper proposes a general approach to pro-poorness, called the progressive sequential averaging principle (PSA), relaxing the requirement of rank preservation due to growth. An endogenous benchmark for evaluating the growth of poor comes out naturally from this principle. A dominance relation on the basis of the above approach for a class of growth profiles is introduced through a simple device, called the PSA curve and its properties are examined in relation to the standard dominances in terms of the generalized Lorenz curve and the inverse generalized Lorenz curve. The paper concludes with an application to evaluate growth profiles experienced by the United States between 2001-2007 and 2007-2013. [less ▲]

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See detailHow effective are mutation testing tools? An empirical analysis of Java mutation testing tools with manual analysis and real faults
Kintis, Marinos UL; Papadakis, Mike UL; Papadopoulos, Andreas et al

in Empirical Software Engineering (in press)

Mutation analysis is a well-studied, fault-based testing technique. It requires testers to design tests based on a set of artificial defects. The defects help in performing testing activities by measuring ... [more ▼]

Mutation analysis is a well-studied, fault-based testing technique. It requires testers to design tests based on a set of artificial defects. The defects help in performing testing activities by measuring the ratio that is revealed by the candidate tests. Unfortunately, applying mutation to real-world programs requires automated tools due to the vast number of defects involved. In such a case, the effectiveness of the method strongly depends on the peculiarities of the employed tools. Thus, when using automated tools, their implementation inadequacies can lead to inaccurate results. To deal with this issue, we cross-evaluate four mutation testing tools for Java, namely PIT, muJava, Major and the research version of PIT, PITRV, with respect to their fault-detection capabilities. We investigate the strengths of the tools based on: a) a set of real faults and b) manual analysis of the mutants they introduce. We find that there are large differences between the tools’ effectiveness and demonstrate that no tool is able to subsume the others. We also provide results indicating the application cost of the method. Overall, we find that PITRV achieves the best results. In particular, PITRV outperforms the other tools by finding 6% more faults than the other tools combined. [less ▲]

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See detail“Luxemburger Standarddeutsch”. On the future of the German language in Luxembourg
Sieburg, Heinz UL

in Muhr, Rudolf; Meisnitzer, Benjamin (Eds.) Pluricentric Languages and Non-Dominant Varieties Worldwide: New pluricentric languages-old problems (in press)

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See detailInequality in old age cognition across the world
Olivera, Javier; Andreoli, Francesco; Leist, Anja UL et al

in Economics and Human Biology (in press)

Although cohort and country differences in average cognitive levels are well established, identifying the degree and determinants of inequalities in old age cognitive functioning could guide public health ... [more ▼]

Although cohort and country differences in average cognitive levels are well established, identifying the degree and determinants of inequalities in old age cognitive functioning could guide public health and policymaking efforts. We use all publicly available and representative old age surveys with comparable information to assess inequalities of cognitive functioning in six distinctive age groups of 29 countries. We document that cognitive inequalities in old age are largely determined by earlier educational inequalities as well as gender differential survival rates. For example, a one percentage point increase in the Gini index of past education is associated with an increase of 0.45 percentage points in the Gini index of delayed recall and 0.23 percentage points in the Gini of immediate recall. Results are robust to a variety of alternative explanations and persist even after controlling for gender-related biases in survival rates. Furthermore, we find evidence that unequal opportunities for education -captured by differences in parental background and gender- also have significant effects on inequality of old age cognition. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling Security and Privacy Requirements: a Use Case-Driven Approach
Mai, Xuan Phu UL; Göknil, Arda UL; Shar, Lwin Khin et al

in Information and Software Technology (in press)

Context: Modern internet-based services, ranging from food-delivery to home-caring, leverage the availability of multiple programmable devices to provide handy services tailored to end-user needs. These ... [more ▼]

Context: Modern internet-based services, ranging from food-delivery to home-caring, leverage the availability of multiple programmable devices to provide handy services tailored to end-user needs. These services are delivered through an ecosystem of device-specific software components and interfaces (e.g., mobile and wearable device applications). Since they often handle private information (e.g., location and health status), their security and privacy requirements are of crucial importance. Defining and analyzing those requirements is a significant challenge due to the multiple types of software components and devices integrated into software ecosystems. Each software component presents peculiarities that often depend on the context and the devices the component interact with, and that must be considered when dealing with security and privacy requirements. Objective: In this paper, we propose, apply, and assess a modeling method that supports the specification of security and privacy requirements in a structured and analyzable form. Our motivation is that, in many contexts, use cases are common practice for the elicitation of functional requirements and should also be adapted for describing security requirements. Method: We integrate an existing approach for modeling security and privacy requirements in terms of security threats, their mitigations, and their relations to use cases in a misuse case diagram. We introduce new security-related templates, i.e., a mitigation template and a misuse case template for specifying mitigation schemes and misuse case specifications in a structured and analyzable manner. Natural language processing can then be used to automatically report inconsistencies among artifacts and between the templates and specifications. Results: We successfully applied our approach to an industrial healthcare project and report lessons learned and results from structured interviews with engineers. Conclusion: Since our approach supports the precise specification and analysis of security threats, threat scenarios and their mitigations, it also supports decision making and the analysis of compliance to standards. [less ▲]

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See detailConflicting temporalities of social and environmental change
Lockie, Stewart; Wong, Catherine UL

in Boström, M.; Davidson, D. (Eds.) Environment and Society: Concepts and Challenges. (in press)

This chapter explores how time and temporality – that is, the rhythms and tempos of social and environmental change – have been considered in social theory before going on to explore the conceptual ... [more ▼]

This chapter explores how time and temporality – that is, the rhythms and tempos of social and environmental change – have been considered in social theory before going on to explore the conceptual frameworks and practices through which policy-makers seek to influence temporal processes in the specific context of climate change policy. The chapter highlights conflict between the temporalities of climate change and the temporalities of politics, as well as conflict between the temporalities of competing political and decision-making processes. While policy-makers advocate strategies to depoliticize climate policy in response to these conflicts, the chapter argues this is neither possible nor desirable. Instead, it advocates more democratic and deliberative approaches to the challenge of synchronizing ever more visible ecological temporalities with the multiple temporalities of the social. [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironmental and Sustainability Education (ESE) in the Benelux region
Van Poeck, Katrien; Wals, Arjen E.J.; König, Ariane UL

in Environmental Education Research (in press)

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See detailL’UNION EUROPEENNE ET LES ACCORDS DE LIBRE-ECHANGE NOUVELLE GENERATION QUELLE EFFICACITE D’ACTION D’UNE UNION A COMPETENCE LIMITEE ?
Neframi, Eleftheria UL

in Annuaire Français des Relations Internationales (in press)

New generation of free trade agreements (CETA, TTIP, agreements with Singapore, China, Vietnam, Japan i.e.) are the expression of the objective of making the European Union a global international actor ... [more ▼]

New generation of free trade agreements (CETA, TTIP, agreements with Singapore, China, Vietnam, Japan i.e.) are the expression of the objective of making the European Union a global international actor. The external action of the Union is however dependent on the principle of conferral and the division of competences with its Member States. It results from Opinion 2/15 of the Court of Justice that the EU competence to conclude the free trade agreement with Singapore is not exclusive, as long as provisions concerning non-direct investments and dispute settlement fall under the shared competence of the Union and its Member States. The limits of the Union’s external competence and the conclusion of a mixed agreement jeopardise the effectiveness of the Union’s external action. However, the objective of an efficient external action allows a novel interpretation of the scope of the Union’s competence in the field of common commercial policy, comprising sustainable development provisions, as well as of the conditions of exercise of shared external competences. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Dynamic of the EU Objectives in the Analysis of the External Competence
Neframi, Eleftheria UL

in Neframi, Eleftheria; Gatti, Mauro (Eds.) Constitutional Issues of EU External Relations Law (in press)

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See detailStatic load deflection experiment on a beam for damage detection using the Deformation Area Difference Method
Erdenebat, Dolgion UL; Waldmann, Danièle UL; Teferle, Felix Norman UL

Scientific Conference (in press)

A reliable and safety infrastructure for both transport and traffic is becoming increasingly important today. The condition assessment of bridges remains difficult and new methods must be found to provide ... [more ▼]

A reliable and safety infrastructure for both transport and traffic is becoming increasingly important today. The condition assessment of bridges remains difficult and new methods must be found to provide reliable information. A meaningful in-situ assessment of bridges requires very detailed investigations which cannot be guaranteed by commonly used methods. It is known that the structural response to external loading is influenced by local damages. However, the detection of local damage depends on many factors such as environmental effects (e.g. temperature), construction layer (e.g. asphalt) and accuracy of the structural response measurement. Within the paper, a new so-called Deformation Area Difference (DAD) Method is presented. The DAD method is based on a load deflection experiment and does not require a reference measurement of initial condition. Therefore, the DAD method can be applied on existing bridges. Moreover, the DAD method uses the most modern technologies such as high precision measurement techniques and attempts to combine digital photogrammetry with drone applications. The DAD method uses information given in the curvature course from a theoretical model of the structure and compares it to real measurements. The paper shows results from a laboratory load-deflection experiment with a steel beam which has been gradually damaged at distinct positions. The load size is chosen so that the maximum deflection does not exceed the serviceability limit state. With the data obtained by the laboratory experiment, the damage degree, which can still be detected by the DAD method, is described. Furthermore, the influence of measurement accuracy on damage detection is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailReview of Meyer, Heinz-Dieter (2017): The Design of the University: German, American, and “World Class”. Abingdon: Routledge
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Comparative Education Review (in press)

By and large, we take our universities for granted. Indeed, the oldest have outlived political regimes of all kinds. This stimulating historical and comparative study exemplifies the importance of in ... [more ▼]

By and large, we take our universities for granted. Indeed, the oldest have outlived political regimes of all kinds. This stimulating historical and comparative study exemplifies the importance of in-depth experience and engagement with the cultural and structural environments in which some of the world’s greatest universities have over centuries incrementally developed and been embedded. This is crucial if we hope to understand the sources of their authority and myriad contributions to scientific knowledge and human flourishing. A neo-institutionalist scholar and multicultural citizen who fruitfully contributes to dialogues exploring core institutions in education and society on both sides of the Atlantic, Heinz-Dieter Meyer is uniquely placed to grapple with the complex processes of institutional learning and design that have made the German and American universities among the globally most productive. He also shows how they have influenced each other via the complex, yet crucial flows of inspired scholars and students carrying key idea(l)s with them for interpretation and application back home. The contributions of key actors, but also the outcomes of choices at critical junctures, such as the failure to establish a national state-funded university in the United States, take center stage in this engaging account of how the leaders of American universities adapted the German model, joining diverse concepts to design what has become the greatest uni-versity system in the world, yet one that remains nearly impossible to emulate due to the unique constellation of actors and institutional environment in which it developed. In eighteen chapters in four parts, The Design of the University: German, American, and “World Class” takes us from Göttingen and Berlin to Boston and to the world level as the scientific enterprise—and competition between scientists and the most crucial organizational form in which they conduct their experiments and make their arguments, the research university—becomes ever more global. Contributing to and inviting debate, Meyer’s main argument is that the American university has suc-ceeded based upon an institutional design—or, perhaps, a non-design—that on multiple levels facil-itates self-government and the identification of a niche within an extraordinarily large and differen-tiated higher education system. This is not a full-fledged historiographic treatment of a subject fa-vored by academics (permanently searching for reputational gains) and policymakers (as they in-creasingly launch research funding programs and evaluation systems to foster competition). Rather than a full-fledged sociology of science, this book creatively sketches the trajectories of German and American university development, emphasizing affinities as well as crucial differences, to ulti-mately argue that in fact “Humboldt’s most important ideas flourished in the American atmosphere of unrestricted institutional experimentation and vigorous self-government” (xiii). Interrogating what he calls the “design thinking” of eminent thinkers Adam Smith and Wilhelm von Humboldt, among others, Meyer traces the challenging, complex, and contingent learning processes in the adaptation of the German research university model to the American context, eventually becoming the most differentiated and “world-class” higher education system in the world. Asking about the reasons for the American university’s success, especially in comparison to the recent insti-tutional crisis of the German research university, albeit still extraordinarily productive, Meyer argues that this American meritocratic success story has institutional design (of self-government) at its heart. Enjoying the patronage of not one, but three major institutions—state, church, and market—the American university attained true autonomy and global preeminence through unparalleled wealth of patronage and an intricate system of checks and balances. In this line of argument, chart-ing the ascendancy from humble origins of what can hardly be called a system due its extraordinary diversity, Meyer concurs with David Labaree (2017), who’s A Perfect Mess [1] is a highly-suitable com-panion piece grounded in the history of American higher education. Contemporary architects of higher education policy globally, driven by the fantasy of “world class” labels, Meyer warns, have completely underestimated the “institutional, social, and political prerequisites that excellence in research and teaching require” (p. 4). Meyer begins his treatise, appropriately, in Göttingen, the site of Georgia Augusta University, where many leaders of American higher education, first and foremost Boston Brahmin George Ticknor, learned by doing, ensconced in a cosmopolitan center of learning and intellectual enlightenment. The blueprint included professionalized scholarship, the unification of research and teaching in seminars and lectures, freedom to choose among academic offerings, a vast library of scientific knowledge, and academic standing based on perpetual production of cutting-edge research judged by peers (p. 19). Instead of Adam Smith’s preferred instruments of competition, choice, and tuition-dependence, Wilhelm von Humboldt’s “design revolution” proposed “three unities” whose powerful integration could surpass the utilitarian logic prevalent then and now: “teaching and research; scien-tific discovery and moral formation (Bildung); scholarly autonomy and scholarly community” (p. 40). The book’s second part, on institutional learning, charts the institutional migration of the blueprint; the contested design options of Gymnasium, college, and graduate school (the latter ultimately the key to global preeminence); the lasting influence of Protestantism (here Meyer follows the arguments of Max Weber, Robert K. Merton, and Joseph Ben-David) and extraordinary educational philanthropy; the battle between those who would centralize, by establishing a national university, and those committed to local control; and finally the contrasting answers to the eternal question of vocational-ism—e.g., how should business be treated, as a sibling to medicine and law or as their distant cousin? The more education-enamored, democratically-inclined patrician elites of the American East Coast were, Meyer argues, radically different institution-builders than German scholars, French state nobility, or even Chinese mandarins: “No other class combined their respect for, and grand vision of, the civilizing role of learning with their economic resources and the realism needed to put their plans into practice” (p. 113). Building on philosophical and historical elaboration, the book’s third part on achieving self-government discusses the six American moves leading to institutional innovation. At organizational level, the German chair and institute give way to departments and discipline, the university presi-dent is no longer figurehead but chief executive, and independent boards of trustees, not govern-ment officials, have ultimate authority. The implications for individuals and organizations of these “design shifts” cannot be overstated. Anyone seeking to understand American higher education, with its phenomenal vertical and horizontal differentiation and on-going academic drift (“a snake-like procession” as David Riesman, to whom the book is dedicated, calls it), and its self-organized autonomy—supported by many philanthropists without the limiting control of a few state bureau-crats—will find this analysis illuminating. Embedded in civil society, “vigorous self-government is the historic design contribution of the American university” (p. 209)—and an achievement that must be guarded in an era in which university autonomy is at risk. In concluding, Meyer’s American opti-mistic and laudatory tone shifts back to Germanic critique and foreboding, identifying challenges and the contemporary struggles that threaten the unintentional masterpiece of institutional learning and diversity. Such justified hopes and fears must now give way to empirical studies of the extraor-dinary outputs in terms of scientific production and societal capabilities and well-being brought about by the continuous process of university Bildung—in Germany, the United States, and around the world. [1] David Labaree (2017), A Perfect Mess: The Unlikely Ascendancy of American Higher Education. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. [less ▲]

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See detailDiachrone Interkulturalität
Wiegmann, Eva UL

Book published by Winter (in press)

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See detailEinführung. Zu einer diachronen Interkulturalitätsforschung
Wiegmann, Eva UL

in Wiegmann, Eva (Ed.) Diachrone Interkulturalität (in press)

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (1 UL)