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See detailEffect of unmodelled tidal displacements in GPS and GLONASS coordinate time series
Abraha, Kibrom Ebuy UL; Teferle, Felix Norman UL; Hunegnaw, Addisu UL et al

in Geophysical Journal International (in press)

This study demonstrates the different effects of unmodelled (sub-)daily tidal displacement in Global Positioning System (GPS) and GLObalnaya NAvigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS) coordinate time ... [more ▼]

This study demonstrates the different effects of unmodelled (sub-)daily tidal displacement in Global Positioning System (GPS) and GLObalnaya NAvigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS) coordinate time-series. The results show that more than two propagated periodic signals appear in GPS and GLONASS Precise Point Positioning (PPP) coordinate time-series in the presence of an unmodelled M2 /O1 tidal displacements as a result of a non-overlapping 24-hr data sampling. To summarize the propagated periodic signals at the fortnightly period, an unmodelled M2 tidal displacement propagates predominately into two long-period signals at 13.6x (x is a positive integer) and 14.76 d for GPS, while only one significant propagated periodic signal at 14.76 d is discernible for GLONASS. Similarly, significant propagated periodic signals at 13.6x and 14.19 d for GPS and only at 14.19 d for GLONASS are evident as a result of an unmodelled O1 tidal displacement. However, an unmodelled M f (long- period) signal results in a strong power of similar magnitude at 13.6x d (∼13.66 d) for both GPS and GLONASS solutions. The appearance of different periodic signals as a result of the same unmodelled tidal displacement is attributed to the different ground repeat periods of the constellations. The latter is likely to explain the reason why the 13.6x-d fortnightly signal is present only in GPS solutions. Comparing the powers of the M2 propagated periodic signals at 13.6x and 14.76 d on average from 32 globally distributed stations, the amplitude of the former is larger than for the latter by an order of magnitude. The results of this study demonstrate that the 13.6x-d periodic signal in GPS/GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) derived products is a joint contribution of the propagation of unmodelled (sub-)daily tidal displacements and errors at longer periods with the former appearing to contribute more. Significant reduction of the propagated periodic signals is achieved from combined-system solutions where including Galileo (the European GNSS) to the combined solution already shows benefits by reducing the effect even before the system has reached its full constellation. Combined GNSS solutions will benefit the applications of GNSS time-series for retrieving tidal harmonic signals such as Mf as they reduce constellation specific propagation effects. [less ▲]

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See detailHigher Education and the Exponential Rise of Science: Competition and Collaboration
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Scott, Robert; Buchmann, Marlis (Eds.) Emerging Trends in the Social and Behavioral Sciences (in press)

How we collaborate and compete to find solutions to the problems and challenges of our age vastly impacts our individual and group success and well-being. Interdependent, the institutions of education and ... [more ▼]

How we collaborate and compete to find solutions to the problems and challenges of our age vastly impacts our individual and group success and well-being. Interdependent, the institutions of education and science have dramatically expanded. Today, scientists in nearly all countries contribute to our shared stores of knowledge, with research universities the driving force behind unexpected pure exponential growth in scientific production. Competition—regional, national, organizational, and individual—has become more potent—with performance measures, comparative indicators, and formal evaluations continuously generated and used in decision-making. Simultaneously, collaboration across institutional, disciplinary, organizational, and cultural boundaries expands the possibilities of discovery and produces the most influential science. Competition and collaboration at the nexus of higher education and science demand enhanced attention as they shape the future of scientific innovation and production, with its understudied yet increasingly incontrovertible effects on individuals and societies. [less ▲]

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See detailInklusive Bildung in der Schweiz: Zwischen globalen Normen und kantonalen Besonderheiten
Mejeh, Mathias; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Bildung & Erziehung (in press), 2018(4),

This paper discusses the institutionalization of inclusive education in Switzerland’s different regions. Various concepts of Neo-Institutionalism were applied to analyse institutional change in ... [more ▼]

This paper discusses the institutionalization of inclusive education in Switzerland’s different regions. Various concepts of Neo-Institutionalism were applied to analyse institutional change in Switzerland’s regionally-varying federal education systems. The key indicator is the school segregation rate of pupils in the 26 Kantone of Switzerland from 1999-2016. We find that inclusive education is differently understood and negotiated. In fact, no unified praxis across the Kantone follows from national inclusive education reforms. Between the global norm of inclusive education as a human right and the incremental, path-dependent change of complex education systems with their highly differentiated special education programs, we find not only mechanisms of decoupling, but also persistent educational inequalities. Evident in the paradoxical increase of segregation in some Kantone, we find no convergence towards inclusion across Switzerland’s regions. [less ▲]

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See detailFundamental rights and constitutional identity(ies): limits or parameters of the EU constitutional governance?
Zinonos, Panagiotis UL

in European Governance and Sovereignty (in press)

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See detailSoftware Engineering Research and Industry: A Symbiotic Relationship to Foster Impact
Basili, Victor; Briand, Lionel UL; Bianculli, Domenico UL et al

in IEEE Software (in press)

Software engineering is not only an increasingly challenging endeavor that goes beyond the intellectual capabilities of any single individual engineer, but is also an intensely human one. Tools and ... [more ▼]

Software engineering is not only an increasingly challenging endeavor that goes beyond the intellectual capabilities of any single individual engineer, but is also an intensely human one. Tools and methods to develop software are employed by engineers of varied backgrounds within a large variety of organizations and application domains. As a result, the variation in challenges and practices in system requirements, architecture, and quality assurance is staggering. Human, domain and organizational factors define the context within which software engineering methodologies and technologies are to be applied and therefore the context that research needs to account for, if it is to be impactful. This paper provides an assessment of the current challenges faced by software engineering research in achieving its potential, a description of the root causes of such challenges, and a proposal for the field to move forward and become more impactful through collaborative research and innovation between public research and industry. [less ▲]

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See detailDisability and Inequality in Educational Opportunities in Life Course Perspective
Powell, Justin J W UL; Pfahl, Lisa

in Becker, Rolf (Ed.) Research Handbook in Sociology of Education (in press)

Inclusive education has become a global norm, supported by the recognition of human rights, and now affects education policymaking and system development worldwide. While important contributions in ... [more ▼]

Inclusive education has become a global norm, supported by the recognition of human rights, and now affects education policymaking and system development worldwide. While important contributions in sociological research on education, disability, and inequality exist, those in life course perspective and international comparative perspectives are rarer. Studies of educational opportunities of children and youth with disabilities and disadvantages over the past several decades underscore the lack of systematic approaches to facilitate educational and social inclusion. Within the educational research field, sociological approaches to disability, to special educational needs, and to inclusive education emphasize such dimensions as exclusion/inclusion, segregation/integration, learning opportunities, in/equality, institutionalization, stigma, risk, and certification or credentials. To recognize and understand the causes and consequences of disability-related inequality requires in-depth dialogue and benefits from results of studies on different levels and within diverse cultural contexts. This article provides insights into disability and inequality in educational opportunities across Europe and an overview of research topics, results, and gaps. The sociology of education would increase its contribution were it to be more inclusive in analyzing the processes that affect educational opportunities and life chances of those who experience disablement in schooling. [less ▲]

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See detailA Machine Learning-Driven Evolutionary Approach for Testing Web Application Firewalls
Appelt, Dennis; Nguyen, Cu D.; Panichella, Annibale UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Reliability (in press)

Web application firewalls (WAF) are an essential protection mechanism for online software systems. Because of the relentless flow of new kinds of attacks as well as their increased sophistication, WAFs ... [more ▼]

Web application firewalls (WAF) are an essential protection mechanism for online software systems. Because of the relentless flow of new kinds of attacks as well as their increased sophistication, WAFs have to be updated and tested regularly to prevent attackers from easily circumventing them. In this paper, we focus on testing WAFs for SQL injection attacks, but the general principles and strategy we propose can be adapted to other contexts. We present ML-Driven, an approach based on machine learning and an evolutionary algorithm to automatically detect holes in WAFs that let SQL injection attacks bypass them. Initially, ML-Driven automatically generates a diverse set of attacks and submit them to the system being protected by the target WAF. Then, ML-Driven selects attacks that exhibit patterns (substrings) associated with bypassing the WAF and evolve them to generate new successful bypassing attacks. Machine learning is used to incrementally learn attack patterns from previously generated attacks according to their testing results, i.e., if they are blocked or bypass the WAF. We implemented ML-Driven in a tool and evaluated it on ModSecurity, a widely used open-source WAF, and a proprietary WAF protecting a financial institution. Our empirical results indicate that ML-Driven is effective and efficient at generating SQL injection attacks bypassing WAFs and identifying attack patterns. [less ▲]

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See detailWhere the mind cannot dare: a case of addictive use of online pornography and its relationship with childhood trauma.
Wéry; Schimmenti, Adriano; Karila, Laurent et al

in Journal of sex & marital therapy (in press)

Dysfunctional use of cybersex has often been conceptualized as a 'behavioral addiction' sharing common traits with substance addiction. We describe the case of a treatment-seeking man, who displayed ... [more ▼]

Dysfunctional use of cybersex has often been conceptualized as a 'behavioral addiction' sharing common traits with substance addiction. We describe the case of a treatment-seeking man, who displayed addictive use of pornography. The case is presented from two perspectives: (1) a symptom-based approach inspired by the addiction model of excessive sexual behaviors and (2) a process-based approach aimed to identify the psychological processes and risk factors that may foster the development of addiction-like symptoms. This article shows how case conceptualization according to a process-based approach is likely to result in psychological intervention that targets the specific processes and risk factors involved in addictive cybersex use. [less ▲]

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See detailSimple and extensible plate and shell finite element models through automatic code generation tools
Hale, Jack UL; Brunetti, Matteo; Bordas, Stéphane UL et al

in Computers & Structures (in press)

A large number of advanced finite element shell formulations have been developed, but their adoption is hindered by complexities of transforming mathematical formulations into computer code. Furthermore ... [more ▼]

A large number of advanced finite element shell formulations have been developed, but their adoption is hindered by complexities of transforming mathematical formulations into computer code. Furthermore, it is often not straightforward to adapt existing implementations to emerging frontier problems in thin structural mechanics including nonlinear material behaviour, complex microstructures, multi-physical couplings, or active materials. We show that by using a high-level mathematical modelling strategy and automatic code generation tools, a wide range of advanced plate and shell finite element models can be generated easily and efficiently, including: the linear and non-linear geometrically exact Naghdi shell models, the Marguerre-von K ́arm ́an shallow shell model, and the Reissner-Mindlin plate model. To solve shear and membrane-locking issues, we use: a novel re-interpretation of the Mixed Interpolation of Tensorial Component (MITC) procedure as a mixed-hybridisable finite element method, and a high polynomial order Partial Selective Reduced Integration (PSRI) method. The effectiveness of these approaches and the ease of writing solvers is illustrated through a large set of verification tests and demo codes, collected in an open-source library, FEniCS-Shells, that extends the FEniCS Project finite element problem solving environment. [less ▲]

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See detailIncluding gaming disorder in the ICD-11: The need to do so from a clinical and public health perspective.
Rumpf, Hans-Jurgen; Achab, Sophia; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Journal of behavioral addictions (in press)

The proposed introduction of gaming disorder (GD) in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) has led to a lively debate ... [more ▼]

The proposed introduction of gaming disorder (GD) in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) has led to a lively debate over the past year. Besides the broad support for the decision in the academic press, a recent publication by van Rooij et al. (2018) repeated the criticism raised against the inclusion of GD in ICD-11 by Aarseth et al. (2017). We argue that this group of researchers fails to recognize the clinical and public health considerations, which support the WHO perspective. It is important to recognize a range of biases that may influence this debate; in particular, the gaming industry may wish to diminish its responsibility by claiming that GD is not a public health problem, a position which maybe supported by arguments from scholars based in media psychology, computer games research, communication science, and related disciplines. However, just as with any other disease or disorder in the ICD-11, the decision whether or not to include GD is based on clinical evidence and public health needs. Therefore, we reiterate our conclusion that including GD reflects the essence of the ICD and will facilitate treatment and prevention for those who need it. [less ▲]

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See detailA Natural Language Programming Approach for Requirements-based Security Testing
Mai, Xuan Phu UL; Pastore, Fabrizio UL; Göknil, Arda UL et al

in Mai, Xuan Phu; Pastore, Fabrizio; Göknil, Arda (Eds.) et al A Natural Language Programming Approach for Requirements-based Security Testing (in press)

To facilitate communication among stakeholders, software security requirements are typically written in natural language and capture both positive requirements (i.e., what the system is supposed to do to ... [more ▼]

To facilitate communication among stakeholders, software security requirements are typically written in natural language and capture both positive requirements (i.e., what the system is supposed to do to ensure security) and negative requirements (i.e., undesirable behavior undermining security). In this paper, we tackle the problem of automatically generat- ing executable security test cases from security requirements in natural language (NL). More precisely, since existing approaches for the generation of test cases from NL requirements verify only positive requirements, we focus on the problem of generating test cases from negative requirements. We propose, apply and assess Misuse Case Programming (MCP), an approach that automatically generates security test cases from misuse case specifications (i.e., use case specifications capturing the behavior of malicious users). MCP relies on natural language processing techniques to extract the concepts (e.g., inputs and activities) appearing in requirements specifications and generates executable test cases by matching the extracted concepts to the members of a provided test driver API. MCP has been evaluated in an industrial case study, which provides initial evidence of the feasibility and benefits of the approach. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevalence and Correlates of Problematic Online Gaming: a Systematic Review of the Evidence Published in Chinese
Long, Jiang; Liu, Tieqiao; Liu, Yueheng et al

in Current Addiction Reports (in press)

Purpose of Review With the ongoing debate about whether problematic online gaming (POG) constitutes a genuine mental disorder, it is important for all available evidence in the field to be accessible. In ... [more ▼]

Purpose of Review With the ongoing debate about whether problematic online gaming (POG) constitutes a genuine mental disorder, it is important for all available evidence in the field to be accessible. In this systematic review, we summarize the numerous results related to POG published in Chinese in order to make them more accessible to the international community. Recent Findings We identified 36 relevant studies published in Chinese (7 epidemiological, 21 related to psychological factors, and 8 related to neurocognitive exploration, involving 362,328 participants in total). According to the literature, the prevalence rates of POG in China range from 3.5 to 17%, which is higher than those reported worldwide. Overall, the data published in Chinese are consistent with the international literature. Some distinctive findings emerged, however, in particular in relation to familial, scholastic, and social factors; cognitive impairments; and functional changes in neural circuits. Summary This review is the first to render available articles on POG in Chinese for the international community, which could contribute to the current debate on the status of POG as a genuine mental health condition. Crucially, findings from the Chinese literature often resulted from studies conducted on large random or clinical samples. This is important because a repeated criticism about the recognition of POG as a genuine disorder is the fact that the evidence-based results rely heavily on convenience samples of nonclinical participants. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing binge-watching behaviors: Development and validation of the “Watching TV Series Motives” and “Binge-Watching Engagement and Symptoms” questionnaires
Flayelle, Maèva UL; Canale, Natale; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Computers in Human Behavior (in press)

The widespread practice of binge-watching (i.e. watching multiple episodes of a TV series in one session) recently generated concerns about associated negative outcomes. Its psychological investigation ... [more ▼]

The widespread practice of binge-watching (i.e. watching multiple episodes of a TV series in one session) recently generated concerns about associated negative outcomes. Its psychological investigation, however, remains fragmentary. Based on the previous phenomenological investigation of TV series watching, we developed and validated two original assessment instruments, assessing TV series watching motives and binge-watching engagement and symptoms, respectively. Preliminary items were created for each questionnaire, and a focus group with TV series viewers was conducted and analyzed to generate the final instruments. The questionnaires were then administered via an online survey (N=6556), together with complementary measures of affect, problematic Internet use and substance use. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, along with correlational analyses, were performed to examine both structural and external validity of the scales. The factorial analyses resulted in a 4-factor model (i.e. emotional enhancement, enrichment, coping-escapism and social) for the Watching TV Series Motives Questionnaire (WTSMQ), and in a 7-factor model (i.e. engagement, positive emotions, desire-savoring, pleasure preservation, binge-watching, dependency and loss of control) for the Binge-Watching Engagement and Symptoms Questionnaire (BWESQ). The results suggest good psychometric properties for both scales. The current study thus provides theoretically-driven and psychometrically sound instruments for further research on binge-watching behaviors [less ▲]

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See detailArbeitslosigkeit für Lehrabgänger problematisch
Sacchi, Stefan; Shi, Lulu P.; Imdorf, Christian et al

in Die Volkswirtschaft (in press)

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See detailInternationale Besteuerung der digitalen Wirtschaft: EU- und OECD-Vorschläge
Sinnig, Julia UL

in Taeger, Jürgen (Ed.) Tagungsband Herbstakademie 2018: Rechtsfragen digitaler Transformationen - Gestaltung digitaler Veränderungsprozesse durch Recht (in press)

Im März 2018 stellten sowohl die Organisation für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung (OECD) als auch die Europäische Union (EU) Zwischenergebnisse ihrer Arbeit im Bereich der ... [more ▼]

Im März 2018 stellten sowohl die Organisation für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung (OECD) als auch die Europäische Union (EU) Zwischenergebnisse ihrer Arbeit im Bereich der Ertragsbesteuerung digitalisierter Geschäftsaktivitäten vor. Während die OECD keine konkrete Empfehlung zur Anpassung bestehender Vorschriften des internationalen Steuerrechts aussprach, stellte die Europäische Kommission sowohl eine langfristige Maßnahme – eine Anpassung des Betriebsstättenkonzepts zugunsten einer sog. signifikanten digitalen Präsenz – als auch einen kurzfristigen Besteuerungsvorschlag – eine sog. Digitalsteuer – vor. Dieser Beitrag knüpft an den Vortrag der Verfasserin in Heidelberg anlässlich der Herbstakademie 2017 an. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrophysiological correlates of emotional crossmodal processing in binge drinking.
Lannoy, Severine; D'Hondt, Fabien; Dormal, Valerie et al

in Cognitive, affective & behavioral neuroscience (in press)

Emotional crossmodal integration (i.e., multisensorial decoding of emotions) is a crucial process that ensures adaptive social behaviors and responses to the environment. Recent evidence suggests that in ... [more ▼]

Emotional crossmodal integration (i.e., multisensorial decoding of emotions) is a crucial process that ensures adaptive social behaviors and responses to the environment. Recent evidence suggests that in binge drinking-an excessive alcohol consumption pattern associated with psychological and cerebral deficits-crossmodal integration is preserved at the behavioral level. Although some studies have suggested brain modifications during affective processing in binge drinking, nothing is known about the cerebral correlates of crossmodal integration. In the current study, we asked 53 university students (17 binge drinkers, 17 moderate drinkers, 19 nondrinkers) to perform an emotional crossmodal task while their behavioral and neurophysiological responses were recorded. Participants had to identify happiness and anger in three conditions (unimodal, crossmodal congruent, crossmodal incongruent) and two modalities (face and/or voice). Binge drinkers did not significantly differ from moderate drinkers and nondrinkers at the behavioral level. However, widespread cerebral modifications were found at perceptual (N100) and mainly at decisional (P3b) stages in binge drinkers, indexed by slower brain processing and stronger activity. These cerebral modifications were mostly related to anger processing and crossmodal integration. This study highlights higher electrophysiological activity in the absence of behavioral deficits, which could index a potential compensation process in binge drinkers. In line with results found in severe alcohol-use disorders, these electrophysiological findings show modified anger processing, which might have a deleterious impact on social functioning. Moreover, this study suggests impaired crossmodal integration at early stages of alcohol-related disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailValuing Creativity, Feeling Overworked and Working Hours: Male Workers and the New Spirit of Capitalism
Samuel, Robin UL; Kanji, Shireen

in Time & Society (in press)

Boltanski and Chiapello (2005) argued that creativity is a required attribute of managers emanating from the ideology of the ‘New Spirit of Capitalism’. Ideology provides the justification for work ... [more ▼]

Boltanski and Chiapello (2005) argued that creativity is a required attribute of managers emanating from the ideology of the ‘New Spirit of Capitalism’. Ideology provides the justification for work practices and brings material consequences in relation to the experience of time. This article explores both the ideology and the links between the ideological and the experience of time by assessing whether male managers prioritise creativity and whether this is related to their working hours, driving them to work longer hours than other workers and longer hours than they actually want. Men’s dominant position in work organisations puts them at the centre of this exploration. Using multilevel logistic and linear models on 2010 data from the European Social Survey (N = 7049), we show that male managers prioritise creativity more than other workers do. There are consequences for the experience of time as valuing creativity in combination with being a manager increases working hours above the large and significant effect of being a manager. The feeling of overwork is raised independently for those who value creativity and for those who are managers. [less ▲]

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See detailAccess to Medical Technologies: Do Gender and Social Capital Matter?
Geraudel, Mickaël UL; Gundolf, Katherine; Cesinger, Beate et al

in Management International = International Management = Gestión Internacional (in press)

We explore the relationship between the characteristics of social capital, the speed of access to medical technologies and the role of gender in a private practice context. Our findings from a sample of ... [more ▼]

We explore the relationship between the characteristics of social capital, the speed of access to medical technologies and the role of gender in a private practice context. Our findings from a sample of 98 German private practitioners show that: (a) being a woman has an overall negative impact on the speed of access to medical technologies; (b) private practitioners with strong social network ties obtain quicker access to medical technologies than do those with weak ties; (c) men relying on their weak ties perform better than women who do so. In contrast, we observe that women relying on strong ties outperform their male counterparts in terms of speed of access to medical technologies. [less ▲]