Last 7 days     Results 21-40 of 3036.   1 2 3 4 5 6 7   Schulische und außerschulische Jugendbildung. Konzepte, Zielsetzung, pädagogische Ansätze.Würtz, Stefanie; Willems, Helmut in Behrmann, Günter C.; Schürmann, Eberhard; Willems, Helmut (Eds.) Der Felsengärtner. Freundesgabe für Roland Eckert. (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 10 (1 UL) A structure-activity relationship linking non-planar PCBs to functional deficits of neural crest cells: new roles for connexinsNyffeler, Johanna; Chovancova, Petra; Dolde, Xenia et alin Archives of Toxicology (in press)Migration of neural crest cells (NCC) is a fundamental developmental process, and test methods to identify interfering toxicants have been developed. By examining cell function endpoints, as in the ... [more ▼]Migration of neural crest cells (NCC) is a fundamental developmental process, and test methods to identify interfering toxicants have been developed. By examining cell function endpoints, as in the ‘migration-inhibition of NCC (cMINC)’ assay, a large number of toxicity mechanisms and protein targets can be covered. However, the key events that lead to the adverse effects of a given chemical or group of related compounds are hard to elucidate. To address this issue, we explored here, whether the establishment of two overlapping structure–activity relationships (SAR)—linking chemical structure on the one hand to a phenotypic test outcome, and on the other hand to a mechanistic endpoint—was useful as strategy to identify relevant toxicity mechanisms. For this purpose, we chose polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) as a large group of related, but still toxicologically and physicochemically diverse structures. We obtained concentration-dependent data for 26 PCBs in the cMINC assay. Moreover, the test chemicals were evaluated by a new high-content imaging method for their effect on cellular re-distribution of connexin43 and for their capacity to inhibit gap junctions. Non-planar PCBs inhibited NCC migration. The potency (1–10 μM) correlated with the number of ortho-chlorine substituents; non-ortho-chloro (planar) PCBs were non-toxic. The toxicity to NCC partially correlated with gap junction inhibition, while it fully correlated (p < 0.0004) with connexin43 cellular re-distribution. Thus, our double-SAR strategy revealed a mechanistic step tightly linked to NCC toxicity of PCBs. Connexin43 patterns in NCC may be explored as a new endpoint relevant to developmental toxicity screening. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 38 (8 UL) The Matthew Effect in Electoral Campaigns: Increase in Policy Congruence Inequality During the CampaignWalgrave, Stefaan; Lesschaeve, Christophe in Electoral Studies : An International Journal (in press)Previous studies have almost consistently found differences between lower and higher educated voters regarding their policy congruence, the policy position agreement between voters and their party. This ... [more ▼]Previous studies have almost consistently found differences between lower and higher educated voters regarding their policy congruence, the policy position agreement between voters and their party. This study analyses the role of a campaign herein. Based on novel panel evidence with an extensive battery of policy statements, combined with a survey of party leaders using the same items, we find that, more than the lowly educated, the highly educated profit from the campaign to increase their policy congruence. The reason for the increased inequality is that the later switch parties more often during the campaign than the former. Our evidence also suggests that the higher educated switch parties because this may increase their policy congruence. In sum, the campaign produces a Matthew effect. Those already having a higher policy congruence increase their congruence even further, while those with a lower congruence to start with, do not make any significant progress. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 26 (0 UL) An Experience Report On Applying Software Testing Academic Results In Industry: We Need Usable Automated Test GenerationArcuri, Andrea in Empirical Software Engineering (in press)What is the impact of software engineering research on current practices in industry? In this paper, I report on my direct experience as a PhD/post-doc working in software engineering research projects ... [more ▼]What is the impact of software engineering research on current practices in industry? In this paper, I report on my direct experience as a PhD/post-doc working in software engineering research projects, and then spending the following five years as an engineer in two different companies (the first one being the same I worked in collaboration with during my post-doc). Given a background in software engineering research, what cutting-edge techniques and tools from academia did I use in my daily work when developing and testing the systems of these companies? Regarding validation and verification (my main area of research), the answer is rather short: as far as I can tell, only FindBugs. In this paper, I report on why this was the case, and discuss all the challenging, complex open problems we face in industry and which somehow are neglected'' in the academic circles. In particular, I will first discuss what actual tools I could use in my daily work, such as JaCoCo and Selenium. Then, I will discuss the main open problems I faced, particularly related to environment simulators, unit and web testing. After that, popular topics in academia are presented, such as UML, regression and mutation testing. Their lack of impact on the type of projects I worked on in industry is then discussed. Finally, from this industrial experience, I provide my opinions about how this situation can be improved, in particular related to how academics are evaluated, and advocate for a greater involvement into open-source projects. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 68 (6 UL) Computational systems biology approaches for Parkinson's diseaseGlaab, Enrico in Cell & Tissue Research (in press)Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a prime example of a complex and heterogeneous disorder, characterized by multifaceted and varied motor- and non-motor symptoms and different possible interplays of genetic and ... [more ▼]Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a prime example of a complex and heterogeneous disorder, characterized by multifaceted and varied motor- and non-motor symptoms and different possible interplays of genetic and environmental risk factors. While investigations of individual PD-causing mutations and risk factors in isolation are providing important insights to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind PD, there is a growing consensus that a more complete understanding of these mechanisms will require an integrative modeling of multifactorial disease-associated perturbations in molecular networks. Identifying and interpreting the combinatorial effects of multiple PD-associated molecular changes may pave the way towards an earlier and reliable diagnosis and more effective therapeutic interventions. This review provides an overview of computational systems biology approaches developed in recent years to study multifactorial molecular alterations in complex disorders, with a focus on PD research applications. Strengths and weaknesses of different cellular pathway and network analyses, and multivariate machine learning techniques for investigating PD-related omics data are discussed, and strategies proposed to exploit the synergies of multiple biological knowledge and data sources. A final outlook provides an overview of specific challenges and possible next steps for translating systems biology findings in PD to new omics-based diagnostic tools and targeted, drug-based therapeutic approaches. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 111 (16 UL) Experimental design trade-offs for gene regulatory network inference: an in silico study of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cycleMarkdahl, Johan ; Colombo, Nicolo ; Thunberg, Johan et alin Proceedings of the 56th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (in press)Time-series of high throughput gene sequencing data intended for gene regulatory network (GRN) inference are often short due to the high costs of sampling cell systems. Moreover, experimentalists lack a ... [more ▼]Time-series of high throughput gene sequencing data intended for gene regulatory network (GRN) inference are often short due to the high costs of sampling cell systems. Moreover, experimentalists lack a set of quantitative guidelines that prescribe the minimal number of samples required to infer a reliable GRN model. We study the temporal resolution of data vs.quality of GRN inference in order to ultimately overcome this deficit. The evolution of a Markovian jump process model for the Ras/cAMP/PKA pathway of proteins and metabolites in the G1 phase of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cycle is sampled at a number of different rates. For each time-series we infer a linear regression model of the GRN using the LASSO method. The inferred network topology is evaluated in terms of the area under the precision-recall curve (AUPR). By plotting the AUPR against the number of samples, we show that the trade-off has a, roughly speaking, sigmoid shape. An optimal number of samples corresponds to values on the ridge of the sigmoid. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 21 (1 UL) Efficacy of metacognitive therapy in improving mental health: A meta-analysis of single-case studiesRochat, Lucien; Manolov, Rumen; Billieux, Joël in Journal of Clinical Psychology (in press)Context. Metacognitive therapy and one of its treatment components, the attention training technique are increasingly being delivered to improve mental health. Objective. To examine the efficacy of ... [more ▼]Context. Metacognitive therapy and one of its treatment components, the attention training technique are increasingly being delivered to improve mental health. Objective. To examine the efficacy of metacognitive therapy and/or attention training technique on mental health outcomes from single-case studies. Methods. Fourteen studies (53 patients) were included. The d-statistic for multiple baseline data and the percentage change index were used to compute the effect sizes. Results. Metacognitive therapy has a large effect on depression, anxiety, other psychopathological symptoms, and all outcomes together. Effect sizes were significantly moderated by the number of sessions, the severity and duration of symptoms, and patient gender, but not by study quality or attention training technique when used as a stand-alone treatment. At the follow-up, 77.36% of the individuals were considered recovered or had maintained improvement. Conclusion. Metacognitive therapy and attention training technique strongly contribute to improving mental health outcomes. This study effectively informs evidence-based practice in the clinical milieu. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 75 (2 UL) Lessons from social network analysis to Industry 4.0Omar, Yamila ; Minoufekr, Meysam ; Plapper, Peter in Manufacturing Letters (in press)With the advent of Industry 4.0, a growing number of sensors within modern production lines generate high volumes of data. This data can be used to optimize the manufacturing industry in terms of complex ... [more ▼]With the advent of Industry 4.0, a growing number of sensors within modern production lines generate high volumes of data. This data can be used to optimize the manufacturing industry in terms of complex network topology metrics commonly used in the analysis of social and communication networks. In this work, several such metrics are presented along with their appropriate interpretation in the field of manufacturing. Furthermore, the assumptions under which such metrics are defined are assessed in order to determine their suitability. Finally, their potential application to identify performance limiting resources, allocate maintenance resources and guarantee quality assurance are discussed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 26 (1 UL) Further exploration of the SUPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale’s factor structure: Evidence from a large Hungarian sampleZsila, Ágnes; Bőthe, Beáta; Demetrovics, Zsolt et alin Current Psychology (in press)Background: Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct playing a pervasive role in psychiatry and neuropsychology. Lynam et al. (2006) have developed the 59-item UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, which ... [more ▼]Background: Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct playing a pervasive role in psychiatry and neuropsychology. Lynam et al. (2006) have developed the 59-item UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, which assesses five distinct impulsivity dimensions: positive urgency, negative urgency, lack of perseverance, lack of premeditation, and sensation seeking. The short, 20-item version of the UPPS-P (SUPPS-P; Billieux et al. 2012) has been developed and adapted into several languages, including English, French, Italian, Spanish, and Arabic. The aim of the present study was to test four theoretical models of the SUPPS-P in a large sample of Hungarian adults. Methods: A total of 15,703 participants (64.76% male; Mage = 33.42 years, SD = 11.06) completed the SUPPS-P using an online questionnaire. Results: Confirmatory factor analyses corroborated the first-order five-factor model of impulsivity and a hierarchical model representing three higher-order constructs (urgency, lack of conscientiousness, sensation seeking), whereas the one-factor and three-factor model were not supported. The factor structure of the SUPPS-P preserved the original, theory-driven structure of the UPPS-P model and this instrument demonstrated good internal consistency. Hypersexual behavior consequences were positively associated with most SUPPS-P components, thus criterion validity was also supported. Conclusion: The SUPPS-P had strong psychometric properties that reflected the theoretical structure of the original UPPS-P model, thus it constitutes a theoretically grounded and time saving multidimensional instrument for assessing impulsivity. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (0 UL) The Politics of Church Land Administration: the Case of the Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem in Ottoman and Mandatory PalestinePapastathis, Konstantinos ; Kark, Ruthin Byzantine & Modern Greek Studies (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 13 (0 UL) An Investigation of Compression Techniques to Speed up Mutation TestingZhu; Panichella, Annibale ; Zaidman, Andyin 11th IEEE Conference on Software Testing, Validation and Verification, 2018 (in press)Mutation testing is widely considered as a high-end test coverage criterion due to the vast number of mutants it generates. Although many efforts have been made to reduce the computational cost of ... [more ▼]Mutation testing is widely considered as a high-end test coverage criterion due to the vast number of mutants it generates. Although many efforts have been made to reduce the computational cost of mutation testing, in practice, the scalability issue remains. In this paper, we explore whether we can use compression techniques to improve the efficiency of strong mutation based on weak mutation information. Our investigation is centred around six mutation compression strategies that we have devised. More specifically, we adopt overlapped grouping and Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) to cluster mutants and test cases based on the reachability (code covergae) and necessity (weak mutation) conditions. Moreover, we leverage mutation knowledge (mutation locations and mutation operator types) during compression. To evaluate our method, we conducted a study on 20 open source Java projects using manually written tests. We also compare our method with pure random sampling and weak mutation. The overall results show that mutant compression techniques are a better choice than random sampling and weak mutation in practice: they can effectively speed up strong mutation 6.3 to 94.3 times with an accuracy of >90%. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 38 (13 UL) A generalization of the concept of distance based on the simplex inequalityKiss, Gergely ; Marichal, Jean-Luc ; Teheux, Bruno in Beiträge zur Algebra und Geometrie / Contributions to Algebra and Geometry (in press)We introduce and discuss the concept of \emph{$n$-distance}, a generalization to $n$ elements of the classical notion of distance obtained by replacing the triangle inequality with the so-called simplex ... [more ▼]We introduce and discuss the concept of \emph{$n$-distance}, a generalization to $n$ elements of the classical notion of distance obtained by replacing the triangle inequality with the so-called simplex inequality $d(x_1, \ldots, x_n)~\leq~K\, \sum_{i=1}^n d(x_1, \ldots, x_n)_i^z{\,}, \qquad x_1, \ldots, x_n, z \in X,$ where $K=1$. Here $d(x_1,\ldots,x_n)_i^z$ is obtained from the function $d(x_1,\ldots,x_n)$ by setting its $i$th variable to $z$. We provide several examples of $n$-distances, and for each of them we investigate the infimum of the set of real numbers $K\in\left]0,1\right]$ for which the inequality above holds. We also introduce a generalization of the concept of $n$-distance obtained by replacing in the simplex inequality the sum function with an arbitrary symmetric function. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 37 (13 UL) Partizipation in Großschutzgebieten - untersucht am Beispiel der Beteiligung an den Workshops zur Erstellung des Rahmenkonzeptes des Biosphärenreservates Bliesgau 2014Nienaber, Birte in Weber, Friedericke; Weber, Florian; Jenal, Corinna (Eds.) Wohin des Weges? Regionalentwicklung in Großschutzgebieten (in press)In 2014 a process of public participation was initiated in order to produce a framework concept for the future configuration of the “Biosphere Bliesgau”. This paper presents characteristics of ... [more ▼]In 2014 a process of public participation was initiated in order to produce a framework concept for the future configuration of the “Biosphere Bliesgau”. This paper presents characteristics of participation, both in general and in large-scale protected areas in particular, and discusses what various forms of participation (ranging from pure information as non-participation to bottom-up partnerships as the strongest form of participation) are possible. The empirical-analytical section of the paper investigates the 2014 process of participation in Biosphere Bliesgau, using publically available protocols and interviews. It can be seen that the top-down process – e. g. involving concrete agreements between individuals or groups – involves the selection of participants – intended or otherwise – and that the highest level of participation could therefore not be achieved. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 UL) Security of Distance−Bounding: A SurveyGildas, Avoine; Muhammed, Ali Bingöl; Ioana, Boureanu et alin ACM Computing Surveys (in press)Distance bounding protocols allow a verifier to both authenticate a prover and evaluate whether the latter is located in his vicinity. These protocols are of particular interest in contactless systems, e ... [more ▼]Distance bounding protocols allow a verifier to both authenticate a prover and evaluate whether the latter is located in his vicinity. These protocols are of particular interest in contactless systems, e.g. electronic payment or access control systems, which are vulnerable to distance-based frauds. This survey analyzes and compares in a unified manner many existing distance bounding protocols with respect to several key security and complexity features. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (0 UL) New Directions in Attack Tree Research: Catching up with Industrial NeedsGadyatskaya, Olga ; Trujillo Rasua, Rolando in Mauw, Sjouke (Ed.) Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Graphical Models for Security (in press)Attack trees provide a systematic way of characterizing diverse system threats. Their strengths arise from the combination of an intuitive representation of possible attacks and availability of formal ... [more ▼]Attack trees provide a systematic way of characterizing diverse system threats. Their strengths arise from the combination of an intuitive representation of possible attacks and availability of formal mathematical frameworks for analyzing them in a qualitative or a quantitative manner. Indeed, the mathematical frameworks have become a large focus of attack tree research. However, practical applications of attack trees in industry largely remain a tedious and error-prone exercise. Recent research directions in attack trees, such as attack tree generation, attempt to close this gap and to improve the attack tree state-of-thepractice. In this position paper we outline the recurrent challenges in manual tree design within industry, and we overview the recent research results in attack trees that help the practitioners. For the challenges that have not yet been addressed by the community, we propose new promising research directions. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 37 (2 UL) Pointwise regularity of parameterized affine zipper fractal curves fractal curvesBárány, Balázs; Kiss, Gergely ; Kolossváry, Istvánin Nonlinearity (in press)We study the pointwise regularity of zipper fractal curves generated by affine mappings. Under the assumption of dominated splitting of index-1, we calculate the Hausdorff dimension of the level sets of ... [more ▼]We study the pointwise regularity of zipper fractal curves generated by affine mappings. Under the assumption of dominated splitting of index-1, we calculate the Hausdorff dimension of the level sets of the pointwise Hölder exponent for a subinterval of the spectrum. We give an equivalent characterization for the existence of regular pointwise Hölder exponent for Lebesgue almost every point. In this case, we extend the multifractal analysis to the full spectrum. In particular, we apply our results for de Rham’s curve. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 UL) Intertemporal material deprivation: a proposal and an application to EU countriesD'Ambrosio, Conchita ; Bossert, Walterin Dasgupta, Indraneel; Mitra, Manipushpak (Eds.) Deprivation, Inequality and Polarization: Essays in Honour of Satya Ranjan Chakravarty (in press)This paper analyzes the effects of the inclusion of past experiences in measuring current material deprivation. The method followed generalizes the proposal of Bossert, Ceriani, Chakravarty and D'Ambrosio ... [more ▼]This paper analyzes the effects of the inclusion of past experiences in measuring current material deprivation. The method followed generalizes the proposal of Bossert, Ceriani, Chakravarty and D'Ambrosio (2014) by adapting the class of indices on the measurement of poverty over time of Dutta, Roope and Zank (2013). An application to the analysis of material deprivation within EU countries is then provided. Following the path of material deprivation experienced by each individual over time yields a picture which differs from that in the annual results. Since the measurement of material deprivation is used by the EU member states and the European Commission to monitor national and EU progress in the fight against poverty and social exclusion, the results suggest that time cannot be neglected. Countries should not only be compared based on their year-by-year results, but additional information is gained by following individuals over time and producing an aggregate measure once dynamic considerations are taken into consideration. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 30 (1 UL) On Koszul-Tate resolutions and Sullivan modelsPistalo, Damjan ; Poncin, Norbert in Dissertationes Mathematicae (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 62 (12 UL) The Scent of a Smell: An Extensive Comparison between Textual and Structural SmellsPalomba, Fabio; Panichella, Annibale ; Zaidman, Andy et alin IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering (in press)Code smells are symptoms of poor design or implementation choices that have a negative effect on several aspects of software maintenance and evolution, such as program comprehension or change- and fault ... [more ▼]Code smells are symptoms of poor design or implementation choices that have a negative effect on several aspects of software maintenance and evolution, such as program comprehension or change- and fault-proneness. This is why researchers have spent a lot of effort on devising methods that help developers to automatically detect them in source code. Almost all the techniques presented in literature are based on the analysis of structural properties extracted from source code, although alternative sources of information (e.g., textual analysis) for code smell detection have also been recently investigated. Nevertheless, some studies have indicated that code smells detected by existing tools based on the analysis of structural properties are generally ignored (and thus not refactored) by the developers. In this paper, we aim at understanding whether code smells detected using textual analysis are perceived and refactored by developers in the same or different way than code smells detected through structural analysis. To this aim, we set up two different experiments. We have first carried out a software repository mining study to analyze how developers act on textually or structurally detected code smells. Subsequently, we have conducted a user study with industrial developers and quality experts in order to qualitatively analyze how they perceive code smells identified using the two different sources of information. Results indicate that textually detected code smells are easier to identify and for this reason they are considered easier to refactor with respect to code smells detected using structural properties. On the other hand, the latter are often perceived as more severe, but more difficult to exactly identify and remove. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 41 (5 UL) A Machine Learning-Driven Evolutionary Approach for Testing Web Application FirewallsAppelt, Dennis; Nguyen, Cu D.; Panichella, Annibale et alin IEEE Transactions on Reliability (in press)Web application firewalls (WAF) are an essential protection mechanism for online software systems. Because of the relentless flow of new kinds of attacks as well as their increased sophistication, WAFs ... [more ▼]Web application firewalls (WAF) are an essential protection mechanism for online software systems. Because of the relentless flow of new kinds of attacks as well as their increased sophistication, WAFs have to be updated and tested regularly to prevent attackers from easily circumventing them. In this paper, we focus on testing WAFs for SQL injection attacks, but the general principles and strategy we propose can be adapted to other contexts. We present ML-Driven, an approach based on machine learning and an evolutionary algorithm to automatically detect holes in WAFs that let SQL injection attacks bypass them. Initially, ML-Driven automatically generates a diverse set of attacks and submit them to the system being protected by the target WAF. Then, ML-Driven selects attacks that exhibit patterns (substrings) associated with bypassing the WAF and evolve them to generate new successful bypassing attacks. Machine learning is used to incrementally learn attack patterns from previously generated attacks according to their testing results, i.e., if they are blocked or bypass the WAF. We implemented ML-Driven in a tool and evaluated it on ModSecurity, a widely used open-source WAF, and a proprietary WAF protecting a financial institution. Our empirical results indicate that ML-Driven is effective and efficient at generating SQL injection attacks bypassing WAFs and identifying attack patterns. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 52 (7 UL)