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See detailStudent case vignettes for the investigation of teachers' tracking decisions
Böhmer, Ines; Hörstermann, Thomas UL; Gräsel, Cornelia et al

Report (in press)

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See detailModeling Security and Privacy Requirements for Mobile Applications: a Use Case-driven Approach
Mai, Xuan Phu UL; Göknil, Arda UL; Shar, Lwin Khin UL et al

Report (2017)

Defining and addressing security and privacy requirements in mobile apps is a significant challenge due to the high level of transparency regarding users' (private) information. In this paper, we propose ... [more ▼]

Defining and addressing security and privacy requirements in mobile apps is a significant challenge due to the high level of transparency regarding users' (private) information. In this paper, we propose, apply, and assess a modeling method that supports the specification of security and privacy requirements of mobile apps in a structured and analyzable form. Our motivation is that, in many contexts including mobile app development, use cases are common practice for the elicitation and analysis of functional requirements and should also be adapted for describing security requirements. We integrate and adapt an existing approach for modeling security and privacy requirements in terms of security threats, their mitigations, and their relations to use cases in a misuse case diagram. We introduce new security-related templates, i.e., a mitigation template and a misuse case template for specifying mitigation schemes and misuse case specifications in a structured and analyzable manner. Natural language processing can then be used to automatically detect and report inconsistencies among artifacts and between the templates and specifications. Since our approach supports stakeholders in precisely specifying and checking security threats, threat scenarios and their mitigations, it is expected to help with decision making and compliance with standards for improving security. We successfully applied our approach to industrial mobile apps and report lessons learned and results from structured interviews with engineers. [less ▲]

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See detailGuru: Universal Reputation Module for Distributed Consensus Protocols
Biryukov, Alex UL; Feher, Daniel UL; Khovratovich, Dmitry UL

Report (2017)

In this paper we describe how to couple reputation systems with distributed consensus protocols to provide high-throughput highly-scalable consensus for large peer-to-peer networks of untrusted validators ... [more ▼]

In this paper we describe how to couple reputation systems with distributed consensus protocols to provide high-throughput highly-scalable consensus for large peer-to-peer networks of untrusted validators. We introduce reputation module Guru, which can be laid on top of various consensus protocols such as PBFT or HoneyBadger. It ranks nodes based on the outcomes of consensus rounds run by a small committee, and adaptively selects the committee based on the current reputation. The protocol can also take external reputation ranking as input. Guru can tolerate larger threshold of malicious nodes (up to slightly above 1/2) compared to the 1/3 limit of BFT consensus algorithms. [less ▲]

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See detailNew Luxembourg Nationality Law came into force on 1 April
Scuto, Denis UL

Report (2017)

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See detailAbschlussbericht zum Forschungsprojekt "Bewegter Unterricht in Luxemburg"
Bund, Andreas UL; Scheuer, Claude

Report (2017)

Das Konzept der Bewegten Schule geht auf den Schweizer Pädagogen Urs Illi zurück, der es Mitte der achtziger Jahre vor allem für den Primarbereich entwickelte (Illi, 1995). Ausgehend von einer medizinisch ... [more ▼]

Das Konzept der Bewegten Schule geht auf den Schweizer Pädagogen Urs Illi zurück, der es Mitte der achtziger Jahre vor allem für den Primarbereich entwickelte (Illi, 1995). Ausgehend von einer medizinisch-gesundheitlichen (Bewegung als Gesundheitsressource) und entwick-lungs- und lerntheoretischen (Bewegung als zentrales Element der Kindesentwicklung, Bewe-gung als zusätzlicher Sinnes- und Erfahrungskanal) Begründung, geht es in diesem Konzept grundsätzlich darum, mehr Bewegung in die traditionelle „Sitzschule“ zu bringen. Am Projekt „Bewegter Unterricht in Luxemburg“ nahmen die SchülerInnen und Lehrkräfte der Grundschulen in Angelsberg, Larochette, Nommern, Lintgen und Vichten teil. An den Schulen Angelsberg, Larochette und Nommern fand im Untersuchungszeitraum von September 2014 bis Juni 2016 durchgehend Bewegter Unterricht statt. Diese Schulen werden im Weiteren als „Projektschulen“ bezeichnet. An den Schulen in Lintgen und Vichten wurde nicht „bewegt“ unterrichtet; diese Schulen dienten somit als Kontrollschulen. [less ▲]

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See detailDer Bachelor in Sozial- und Erziehungswissenschaften (BSSE) und seine Praxisfelder
Böwen, Petra UL; Dujardin, Céline UL

Report (2017)

Der vorliegende Forschungsbericht „Der Bachelor in Sozial- und Erziehungswissenschaften (BSSE) und seine Praxisfelder“ beschäftigt sich mit dem Studiengang des BSSE und stellt seine Bedeutung für die ... [more ▼]

Der vorliegende Forschungsbericht „Der Bachelor in Sozial- und Erziehungswissenschaften (BSSE) und seine Praxisfelder“ beschäftigt sich mit dem Studiengang des BSSE und stellt seine Bedeutung für die luxemburgische Gesellschaft im Allgemeinen und für den Arbeitsmarkt der Sozialen Arbeit im Besonderen dar. Er zeigt die Vernetzung der vielfältigen Praxisfelder und der verschiedenen politischen Bereiche auf. Letztere werden durch Beiträge der jeweiligen Minister von den acht zuständigen Ministerien verdeutlicht. Mit diesem Projekt möchte das PraxisBüro auf die Soziale Arbeit als wesentliche Säule für das Funktionieren unserer Gesellschaft hinweisen und weitere Brücken zwischen den unterschiedlichen Akteuren der verschiedenen Praxisfelder schaffen. Durch den BSSE-Studiengang wird seit über 11 Jahren eine Ausbildung in Sozialarbeit/Sozialpädagogik an der Universität Luxemburg angeboten, die den bestehenden Ausbildungstraditionen aus dem Ausland gegenübertritt. Es ist der einzige Studiengang dieser Art in Luxemburg. Das Diplom ermöglicht die Arbeit als éducateur gradué und/oder assistant social und den Zugang zu der Gehaltsgruppe A2 (Bachelorebene) beim Staat. Die Entwicklung und Bedeutung des Studiengangs wird durch die Anzahl der Absolventen und deren Berufsabschlüsse illustriert, wobei auch die wachsende starke Nachfrage bei den Studienplätzen erstmals systematisch aufgearbeitet wird. Die Argumentation einer Typologie der Praxisfelder gibt den sehr vielfältigen sozialen Bereichen eine Ordnung und ermöglicht somit die Analyse der Praktikumsstellen, der Studienabschlussarbeiten und der beruflichen Praxis der BSSE-Studierenden bzw. BSSE-Absolventen. Der Arbeitsmarkt und die Arbeitsmarktchancen der BSSE-Absolventen werden sowohl durch die existierende Fachliteratur und Informationen der Arbeitsmarktverwaltung als auch durch systematische Arbeitsmarktbeobachtungen (hierbei handelt es sich um ein weiteres Forschungsprojekt des PraxisBüros) untersucht. Die konkreten Praxisfelder werden durch die vorausgegangene Typologie und durch BSSEAbsolventen im Beruf selbst vorgestellt. In diesen Beiträgen finden auch die Absolventen, die sich für ein weiterführendes Master-Studium entschieden haben, ihren Platz. Abschließend unterstreichen Fazit und Ausblick die Bedeutung des Studiengangs für die luxemburgische Gesellschaft und laden zu Kooperations-, Netzwerk- und Weiterbildungsmöglichkeiten ein, die die Brücken zwischen Wissenschaft, Praxis und Politik weiter ausbauen und festigen. [less ▲]

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See detailCorruption prevention in respect of Members of Parliament, Judges and Prosecutors- Evaluation Report Switzerland
Poirier, Philippe UL

Report (2017)

In a report published, the Council of Europe anti-corruption body (GRECO) highlights the specificities of Switzerland’s institutions which enjoy considerable public confidence. It underlines, however ... [more ▼]

In a report published, the Council of Europe anti-corruption body (GRECO) highlights the specificities of Switzerland’s institutions which enjoy considerable public confidence. It underlines, however, that the very organisation of the system allows subtle pressure to be exerted on politicians and the judiciary (See also the French, German and Italian versions of the report). More specifically, GRECO deems it necessary to increase members of parliament’s (MPs) awareness regarding issues of ethics and conflicts of interest. To this end, it recommends adopting a code, announcing publicly MPs’ conflicts of interest as part of the parliamentary procedure and developing the system for declaring relevant interests. These measures need to be accompanied by a reinforced monitoring of MPs’ compliance with their obligations. While recognising the legitimacy of the principle of the election of judges of the federal courts by the Federal Assembly, GRECO calls for improvements to better ensure the quality and objectivity of the recruitment of these judges. It also underlines the importance of severing ties with the political powers after their election, notably by doing away with the practice of judges paying part of their salary to “their” party. Rules of professional ethics applicable to judges also need to be developed and a transparent disciplinary system put in place. The Office of the Attorney General of the Confederation, which enjoys a large degree of independence, also needs to develop rules of professional ethics applicable to its members and to provide greater transparency in disciplinary matters. The implementation of the 12 recommendations addressed to Switzerland will be assessed by GRECO in the second half of 2018 through its compliance procedure. [less ▲]

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See detailIllegal employment of Third-Country Nationals in the EU
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Petry, Ralph UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2017)

Illegal employment by third country nationals is a reality in Luxembourg. However, as well as in the case of grey and informal economy, it is rather hard to grasp or quantify to which extent. Nevertheless ... [more ▼]

Illegal employment by third country nationals is a reality in Luxembourg. However, as well as in the case of grey and informal economy, it is rather hard to grasp or quantify to which extent. Nevertheless, the problem is not as significant as the one of the posted workers which is more relevant and worrisome and needs to be situated in the context of a labour market of the Greater Region. In the past, several labour related regularisation measures have been implemented in Luxembourg in order to provide both employers and employees the possibility to regularise situations of illegal employment. The last labour related regularisation measure was implemented in early 2013 in the context of the transposition of the Employers' Sanctions Directive 2009/52 by law of 21 December 2012. During this regularisation, the Directorate of Immigration received 664 applications. These regularisations give a partial indication of the extent of the phenomenon, even though these numbers do not provide a real picture of the problem because the conditions of this regularisation were very strict and in a very short time frame (less than two months) and a certain number of irregular migrants’ workers were not willing to expose themselves by applying and preferred to remain undetected. This regularisation also provided information on the main sectors were the phenomenon is found in order of importance: HORECA, cleaning, crafts, industry and construction. The Ministry of Labour, Employment and Social and Solidary Economy at the end of the regularisation has insisted in the need to increase the number of controls to employers. The law of 21 December 2012 established administrative as well as criminal sanctions for employers who illegally employ irregularly staying third country nationals, particularly in relation to offenses to the Labour Code in aggravating circumstances. This law amended also article 89 of the Immigration Law abrogating the possibility of making labour related regularisations. The Inspectorate of Labour (‘Inspection de Travail et des Mines’, hereafter called ITM), which is in charge of labour inspections and the control of illegal employment of TCNs in Luxembourg, is currently going through a restructuring phase following the latest audit of this administration from January 2015. Particularly the current insufficient number of staff of the ITM, which is in need of a significant short term increase of staff, represents a main challenge in the field of illegal employment in Luxembourg. It is also in the context of this restructuring phase of the responsible administration that the drafting of this study presented a number of challenges, especially in relation to the operational and statistical part of the template. The information regarding the conditions to be fulfilled by both the employers and the employees in the context of an employment relationship are available on the website of the concerned authorities. Furthermore, they are disseminated by the NGOs working in the field, even though there are no specific campaigns targeted to prevent illegal employment of TCNs. The matter was raised in the context of the ‘social identification badge’, which was introduced in 2013 in order to fight against social dumping in particular in the construction sector. One national stakeholder suggested that the ‘social identification badge’ could be revised and adapted to other economic sectors in order to better monitor and prevent illegal employment. In regards to access to justice and enforcement of rights of illegally employed TCNs, Luxembourg foresees the right for illegally employed TCNs to make a claim against their employer, including in cases in which they have, or have been, returned. This claim falls under the general provisions concerning the right to bring a case before civil courts. The Labour Code establishes that the employer who has employed an irregular staying third-country national must pay to the third-country national the following amounts: 1) salaries and any other emoluments, which a similar employee would have benefited for the same employment; 2) the total amount of outstanding remuneration as well as the cost of the transfer of these amounts to the third-country national to the country to which s/he is returned; 3) the total amount of unpaid social contributions and taxes, including administrative fines, as well as, court and legal fees. In addition, the Labour Code establishes that the third-country national who has been illegally employed before the execution of any return decision has to be systematically and objectively informed by the control agents of his/her rights to recover the outstanding remunerations and back payments, as well as the right to benefit from free of charge legal aid in order to attempt a recovery action against the employer, even if the third-country national has already been returned. Labour unions can support and assist TCNs in legal proceedings related to social and labour law, provided that they have been given a mandate to do so. Eventual costs of administrative and civil proceedings can be taken in charge by the labour unions if the TCN is a member of the respective labour union. The Law does not establish fines against TCN’s who were illegally employed. The TCN may be issued a return decision and lose his/her residence rights; however, the Directorate of immigration processes these situations on a case-by-case basis and inform the persons concerned to terminate the illegal employment situation. [less ▲]

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See detailPostulates for Revocation Schemes - Technical Report
Cramer, Marcos UL; Casini, Giovanni UL

Report (2017)

In access control frameworks with the possibility of delegating permissions and administrative rights, delegation chains can form. There are di erent ways to treat these delegation chains when revoking ... [more ▼]

In access control frameworks with the possibility of delegating permissions and administrative rights, delegation chains can form. There are di erent ways to treat these delegation chains when revoking rights, which give rise to di erent revocation schemes. Hagstr om et al. [11] proposed a framework for classifying revocation schemes, in which the di erent revocation schemes are de ned graph-theoretically. At the outset, we identify multiple problems with Hagstr om et al.'s de nitions of the revocation schemes, which can pose security risks. This paper is centered around the question how one can systematically ensure that improved de nitions of the revocation schemes do not lead to similar problems. For this we propose to apply the axiomatic method originating in social choice theory to revocation schemes. Our use of the axiomatic method resembles its use in belief revision theory. This means that we de ne postulates that describe the desirable behaviour of revocation schemes, study which existing revocation frameworks satisfy which postulates, and show how all de ned postulates can be satis ed by de ning the revocation schemes in a novel way. [less ▲]

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See detailFamily reunification of third-country nationals in the EU: national practices (country report Luxembourg)
Petry, David UL; Jacobs, Sarah UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL et al

Report (2017)

In Luxembourg, family reunification is one of the main reasons for immigration of third-country nationals. In fact, “family member” and “private reasons (family links)” residence permits (first deliveries ... [more ▼]

In Luxembourg, family reunification is one of the main reasons for immigration of third-country nationals. In fact, “family member” and “private reasons (family links)” residence permits (first deliveries and renewals) represented more than a third of all residence permits issued during the last three years. While the right to family reunification was solely provided by international law and regulated by administrative practice until 2008, the transposition of Directive 2003/86/EC of 22 September 2003 on the right to family reunification led to a much more precise and detailed legal framework. A notable change in legislation has been proposed with the introduction of bill n° 6992 , namely the harmonisation of the conditions that apply to third-country national employees with those of Blue Card holders and researchers. Thus, family reunification requirements for certain categories of applicants shall be alleviated through the abrogation of the 12-month residence requirement for the sponsor. In order to apply for family reunification in Luxembourg, sponsors have to meet a number of requirements for exercising the right to family reunification, which include the provision of suitable accommodation for the size of their family; meeting health and safety standards; health insurance; as well as stable and regular resources to provide for themselves and their family members. As recommended by Directive 2003/86/EC, Luxembourg sets out more favourable conditions to beneficiaries of international protection for the exercise of their right to family reunification. Thus, they do not have to comply with the above-mentioned requirements in case they apply for family reunification within 3 months of being granted the status. Family members who have come to Luxembourg under family reunification have access to education, orientation, vocational training, lifelong learning and professional retraining once their residence permit has been issued. Family members furthermore have access to the labour market. In case the family member has resided in Luxembourg for less than one year when the application is submitted, it will be submitted to the labour market test. Family members can also, under a number of conditions, benefit from guaranteed minimum income, social aid, long-term residence status as well as citizenship. National stakeholders noted that the requirement of finding appropriate accommodation and proving stable and regular resources is one of the main challenges for sponsors. For family members as well as sponsors, having sufficient financial resources to cover the costs of family reunification can be another challenge to accessing family reunification. Family members of beneficiaries of international protection in particular face the more procedural challenge of providing proof of identity and family links, which can be difficult due to lacking documentation, differing administrative practices in the country of origin and/or the lack of cooperation of institutions. Gaining access to family reunification is also particularly difficult for beneficiaries of international protection who arrived in Luxembourg as unaccompanied minors but reached adulthood during the examination of their file, as they must provide proof of their family member’s dependency upon them. The limited number of diplomatic representations of Luxembourg abroad poses a challenge both to family members who must present themselves there, as well as for the Luxembourgish authorities who require information on certain countries. Perceived as a best practice with regard to family reunification are the information that NGOs and the lawyers in the field of migration and asylum provide to beneficiaries of international protection with regard to procedures of family reunification, thereby contributing to the beneficiary’s ability to enter an application for family reunification within the 3-month period. The practice of accepting the submission of an application of family members of beneficiaries of international protection that contains only a commencement of proof of family links and allowing for the finalisation at a later date is also perceived as a good practice, as it enables them to exercise their right to family reunification while benefitting from more favourable conditions. Furthermore, the issuance of a “laisser-passer” for beneficiaries of international protection who cannot obtain travel documents is perceived as a big step forward by national stakeholders. Lastly, Restoring Family Links, a service provided by the Luxembourgish Red Cross, is also considered a reliable tool with regard to tracing missing family members abroad. [less ▲]

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See detailSociétés francophones dans le monde de 2050 : Une génération de développement humain soutenable
Chauvel, Louis UL; Hartung, Anne UL; Bar-Haim, Eyal UL et al

Report (2017)

Ce rapport est consacré à une question cruciale pour la Francophonie : le développement démographique, socioéconomique et humain comparé à l’horizon 2050 des sociétés francophones – ces pays membres ou ... [more ▼]

Ce rapport est consacré à une question cruciale pour la Francophonie : le développement démographique, socioéconomique et humain comparé à l’horizon 2050 des sociétés francophones – ces pays membres ou non de l’APF où la langue française joue un rôle important dans l’échange d’idées au quotidien. Il s’agit ici tout à la fois d’un bilan de ce développement depuis 1980 et d’une prospective à l’horizon de 2050. Nous soulignons le renouveau mondial de la francophonie au cours du XXIe siècle, en particulier dans le contexte de sociétés multilingues. Après des décennies de stagnation en proportion de la population mondiale, les pays francophones et la francophonie pourraient émerger comme troisième ère linguistique après l’Anglais et le Chinois, avec une présence sur l’ensemble des continents. Au travers d’un bilan dynamique des sociétés francophones, un ensemble de défis sont mis en évidence : la comparaison met en lumière les risques démographiques, de surpopulation, de pauvreté extrême, de gradient de développement humain (éducation, santé, égalité entre femmes et hommes, etc.). La génération qui vient pourrait voir une amplification des difficultés si nous suivons le scénario central de la prospective. Un autre scénario, optimiste, permet d’envisager une meilleure croissance des pays les plus pauvres, une marche vers l’égalisation du développement humain, un redéveloppement harmonieux, en promouvant la richesse humaine des pays en développement. C’est le message du philosophe Hans Jonas : en nous conformant au devoir d’améliorer le sort des générations suivantes, en investissant en elle, nous nous enrichirons ensemble. Sur cette voie, la pratique d’une francophonie multilingue – où le français est une langue officielle parmi d’autres – semble offrir aux pays qui la connaissent un surcroît de ressources de développement, en accroissant les canaux de la communication en interne et avec les autres pays. [less ▲]

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See detailMedia Pluralism monitor 2016: Luxembourg
Kies, Raphaël UL; Nommesch, Kies; Schall, Céline

Report (2017)

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See detailFEUTURE EU 28 Country Report: Luxembourg
Högenauer, Anna-Lena UL

Report (2017)

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See detailAnalyse de l’impact des interactions sectorielles sur l’évolution des salaires. Comparaison de quatre pays
Bourgain, Arnaud UL; Sneessens, Henri UL; Shadman, Fatemeh et al

Report (2017)

The main objective is to examine the interactions between various sectors in the determination of wages. After a brief description of sectoral specificities in wage setting, the core of the project ... [more ▼]

The main objective is to examine the interactions between various sectors in the determination of wages. After a brief description of sectoral specificities in wage setting, the core of the project consists in estimating different wages functions taking into account wage spillovers across macro-sectors (manufacturing industry, finance, other services and public sector). To this end, we use quarterly sectoral data on four countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, France, Germany) over the period 1995-2014 and we estimate VAR-ECM and other econometric models addressing potential endogeneity problems. [less ▲]

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See detailKripke Semantics for BL0 and BL – Technical report
Cramer, Marcos UL; Garg, Deepak

Report (2017)

We describe Kripke semantics for the access control logics BL0 and BL, developed by Garg and Pfenning.

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See detailAugmenting and Structuring User Queries to Support Efficient Free-Form Code Search
Sirres, Raphael; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL; Kim, Dongsun UL et al

Report (2017)

Source code terms such as method names and variable types are often different from conceptual words mentioned in a search query. This vocabulary mismatch problem can make code search inefficient. In this ... [more ▼]

Source code terms such as method names and variable types are often different from conceptual words mentioned in a search query. This vocabulary mismatch problem can make code search inefficient. In this paper, we present Code voCABUlary (CoCaBu), an approach to resolving the vocabulary mismatch problem when dealing with free-form code search queries. Our approach leverages common developer questions and the associated expert answers to augment user queries with the relevant, but missing, structural code entities in order to improve the performance of matching relevant code examples within large code repositories. To instantiate this approach, we build GitSearch, a code search engine, on top of GitHub and StackOverflow Q\&A data. We evaluate GitSearch in several dimensions to demonstrate that (1) its code search results are correct with respect to user-accepted answers; (2) the results are qualitatively better than those of existing Internet-scale code search engines; (3) our engine is competitive against web search engines, such as Google, in helping users complete solve programming tasks; and (4) GitSearch provides code examples that are acceptable or interesting to the community as answers for StackOverflow questions. [less ▲]

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See detail21st century skills for the 21st century work place. Special section.
Murphy, Kevin; Greiff, Samuel UL; Niepel, Christoph UL

Report (2017)

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See detailMigrants and their Descendants: Social Inclusion and Participation in Society
Vysotskaya, Volha UL; Fernandes Neves, Catia; Ramires Campino, Ana Rita et al

Report (2017)

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See detailDie Jugend der Gemeinde Strassen Entwicklungen, Probleme und Perspektiven: Ergebnisbericht der Jugendstudie im Rahmen des Jugendkommunalplanes für die Gemeinde Strassen
Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL; Heinen, Andreas UL; Willems, Helmut UL

Report (2016)

Die vorliegende Studie zur Situation der Jugendlichen in der Gemeinde Strassen wurde von der Forschergruppe „youth research“ an der Forschungseinheit INSIDE (Integrative Research Unit on Social and ... [more ▼]

Die vorliegende Studie zur Situation der Jugendlichen in der Gemeinde Strassen wurde von der Forschergruppe „youth research“ an der Forschungseinheit INSIDE (Integrative Research Unit on Social and Individual Development) der Universität Luxemburg im Auftrag des Bürgermeister- und Schöffenrates der Gemeinde Strassen erstellt. Diese Studie ist Teil des Jugendkommunalplans für die Gemeinde Strassen und hat zum Ziel, den Verantwortlichen in Politik, Verwaltung und Jugendarbeit Informationen zu liefern, die zu einem besseren Verständnis der Jugendlichen in der Gemeinde beitragen. Denn die Gruppe der Jugendlichen repräsentiert mit ihren Wünschen, eigenen Sichtweisen und Erwartungen eine zentrale Entwicklungsperspektive für die Gemeinde Strassen. Unter anderem aus diesem Grund sind die Ergebnisse dieser Studie eine wichtige Informations- und Diskussionsgrundlage für die zukünftige Planung und Umsetzung der kommunalen Jugendpolitik und ein wichtiges Fundament für „Evidence-based-policy-making“, also eine wissensbasierte Jugendpolitik in Strassen. Diesem Anliegen entsprechend wurde diese Studie als Situations- und Bedarfsanalyse konzipiert. Wichtige thematische Aspekte sind insbesondere die Lebenswelten, das Freizeitverhalten und die Freizeitinteressen der Jugendlichen in Straßen aber auch die sozialen Herkunftsmilieus die einen starken Einfluss auf die Startbedingungen, Lebensentwürfe und Zukunftsperspektiven der Jugendlichen haben. Nicht zuletzt interessiert auch die Frage, wie die Jugendlichen unterschiedlicher Herkunft in der Gemeinde integriert sind, wie zufrieden sie mit den Angeboten und der Infrastruktur sind, welche Möglichkeiten der Partizipation für sie wichtig sind und inwiefern die Maßnahmen und Angebote der kommunalen Politik die Jugendlichen erreichen. In diesem Zusammenhang ist auch ein genauerer Blick auf die Situation der Jugendlichen mit einer ausländischen Nationalität von Interesse, zum Beispiel die Frage, wo Defizite aber auch Chancen einer stärkeren Integration oder Beteiligung dieser großen Zahl an Jugendlichen am Gemeindeleben bestehen. Bei vielen Themenbereichen sind Vergleiche mit anderen luxemburgischen oder mit internationalen Jugendstudien möglich. Dadurch können Gemeinsamkeiten sowie Besonderheiten der Gemeinde Straßen deutlich gemacht werden. [less ▲]

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See detailAchieving Universal Health Coverage: Technology for innovative primary health care education
Lygidakis, Charilaos UL; McLoughlin, Clodagh; Patel, Kunal

Report (2016)

The challenges to achieving universal health coverage (UHC) are obvious yet vast in their scope: leading these is a lack of strong primary health care (PHC) systems and a global shortage of well-trained ... [more ▼]

The challenges to achieving universal health coverage (UHC) are obvious yet vast in their scope: leading these is a lack of strong primary health care (PHC) systems and a global shortage of well-trained health care professionals. Addressing these challenges is paramount, as it is well-trained health care professionals who will build the strong PHC systems that are necessary for UHC. Due to the continuing spread and evolution of information and communications technology (ICT) in health care and education, ICT should be considered as an essential tool for innovative primary health care education.  Many nations face a distinct lack of UHC, grossly unequal health services and an acute shortage of suitably qualified family doctors, nurses and allied health care professionals that constitute the primary health care team. It is estimated that by 2035, the world will have a shortage of 12.9 million health care professionals, however an additional 1.9 billion people will require health care. Recruiting, educating and retaining these primary health care teams is therefore fundamental to meet ongoing demands.  Family doctors contribute to high quality, cost-effective and accessible primary health care. However, PHC faces considerable challenges, including a preference from policymakers, the public, and members of the health care community for specialisation. Specialist-focused care may be attractive, but it is often economically unsustainable and absorbs resources that are necessary for PHC. Yet, cooperation between primary and secondary care is essential for delivering the best care to patients and communities. It should not be a matter of choosing between primary and secondary care, but rather of recognising and adequately supporting the unique attributes and skillsets that each has to offer.  Family medicine lies at the heart of primary health care. The key to producing skilled family doctors is good family medicine training, particularly at a postgraduate level. There is great potential to improve the scale and quality of family medicine training, starting with exposure to the field as early as possible. For the delivery of primary care to be effective – and lead to the achievement of universal health coverage – the composition of the primary care team should reflect the demography and health needs of the local population. Thus, the composition of the primary care team will differ from location to location, depending on the age/sex/ health needs of the local population. Family doctors and all of the PHC professionals should have a set of universal core skills, in addition to skills specific to the population and geography they serve. To provide effective care, health professionals need to understand the importance of social factors in influencing population health; therefore, training curricula must be adapted to local contexts  Career development through postgraduate training strongly motivates health professionals to stay in their own localities, as well as being vital for patient safety and improved outcomes. Yet, despite a thirst for postgraduate training among family doctors and other primary health care professionals, it is often difficult to access. ICT may be used to address recruitment and retention issues by providing easily accessible and good quality education.  This report examines a key question: Can ICT facilitate the education of PHC professionals worldwide in order to address the challenges facing PHC and UHC? Through in-depth literature reviews, analysis, and targeted interviews with key experts, the report concludes that ICT can indeed support, enhance and accelerate the education of the primary health care team’s members, in six key ways:  1. It is an effective means of developing workforce capacity. By overcoming geographical barriers and supplementing traditional instruction with online delivery from international and regional tutors, ICT can substantially increase health care professionals’ access to postgraduate education without the need for travel, thus helping to avoid disruption to healthcare delivery.  2. It helps to recruit and retain professionals. E-learning overcomes issues of access and isolation, and can be done flexibly to suit the learner. By providing access to specialist support, postgraduate courses and mentoring opportunities, e-learning and telehealth encourage in-country and rural retention of health care workers.  3. It is cost-saving. Traditional models of health professional education are expensive, both for the provider and for health care professionals. Developing ICT solutions may entail high initial costs but these are reduced over time, and with more users, achieve economies of scale.  4. It facilitates social and collaborative learning which has been shown to have the greatest impact on patient outcomes. A blend of synchronous and asynchronous e-learning is likely to be the most effective way of achieving interprofessional learning. Communities of practice are encouraged using ICT and social media, reducing professional isolation and improving collaboration.  5. It can help to bring contextualised care to where it is needed. For example, simulation-based medical education enables problem-based, interactive and contextualised learning. End-user (including patient) participation is paramount when designing ICT-based educational programmes.  6. It improves the quality of care by facilitating access to evidence-based medicine and reflective learning. Email alerts can support education by reaching a large audience and providing trustworthy information tailored to individual needs; social media can aid in streamlining vast amounts of information into a small number of tailored-to-the-individual articles; blogs and electronic portfolios can encourage reflective life-long learning. Capturing these opportunities will require stakeholders to consider the following:  a) Securing political and financial support to establish and maintain strong PHC systems  b) Adopting a collaborative interprofessional approach between health professionals, from medical school through to the workplace  c) Providing education and training relevant to the context and to user needs  d) Improving recruitment and retention through training  e) Encouraging the standardisation and accreditation of health professional education  f) Investing in ICT training for learners, educators and patients  g) Planning and developing programmes that use technology meaningfully to improve care quality, cost-effectiveness, accessibility, equity and patient safety  h) Recognise and consolidate the interdependence of all the health professionals in the PHC setting.  [less ▲]

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See detailTwo new projects on the Early Cold War period of European Integration
Paravantis, Spero UL

Report (2016)

Core Junior Web Page Announcement

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See detailÜbergänge in der Perspektive von Professionellen im Kontext der strukturellen Bedingungen in Luxemburg
Jäger, Julia UL; Peters, Ulla UL; Herdtle, Anna-Marie UL et al

Report (2016)

Kurzfassung der wichtigsten Ergebnisse einer Befragung von Professionellen, die Übergänge von Jugendlichen in die Selbstständigkeit begleiten. Die Befragung ist Teil des unter der Leitung von Prof. Dr ... [more ▼]

Kurzfassung der wichtigsten Ergebnisse einer Befragung von Professionellen, die Übergänge von Jugendlichen in die Selbstständigkeit begleiten. Die Befragung ist Teil des unter der Leitung von Prof. Dr. Ute Karl vom FNR geförderten Forschungsprojekts „TransCare“. [less ▲]

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See detailShape Optimization Directly from CAD: an Isogeometric Boundary Element Approach Using T-splines
Lian, Haojie; Pierre, Kerfriden; Bordas, Stéphane UL

Report (2016)

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See detailResettlement and Humanitarian Admission Programmes in Europe – what works?
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Petry, David UL; Marcus, Noemie UL et al

Report (2016)

Luxembourg has a long tradition in “resettling” refugees from various parts of the world, but a more structured policy has only recently been implemented. National legislation does not include any ... [more ▼]

Luxembourg has a long tradition in “resettling” refugees from various parts of the world, but a more structured policy has only recently been implemented. National legislation does not include any provisions relating to resettlement policy and there are no specific national programmes. The resettlements have always been implemented on an ad-hoc basis or within broader programmes set up by the European Commission and/or UNHCR. Since 2014, Luxembourg additionally applies a quota of refugees to be annually resettled (15-20 persons). The implementation and organisation of the resettlement process may vary case by case and there is no standardised procedure applicable except for regular resettlements for which the framework is to a large extent outlined in the UNHCR’s Resettlement Handbook. The selection and identification of resettled persons is coordinated by the Directorate of Immigration in close collaboration with UNHCR, who performs in principle an eligibility assessment for the refugee status, which the Luxembourgish authorities shall take over once the person arrives in Luxembourg. For each resettlement mission Luxembourg sets a general profile as well as the number of persons they intend to resettle. These criteria do basically not differ from UNHCR’s Global Resettlement Submission Criteria and thus include women, children, elderly refugees as well as refugees with disabilities and diseases, except for those suffering from pathologies for which there is no adequate treatment available in Luxembourg. Apart from the vulnerability criteria, Luxembourgish authorities also take the “integration potential” into consideration when selecting candidates eligible for resettlements. This might explain the general preference of resettling entire families rather than single persons. Resettlement implemented within the EU Turkey 1:1 scheme, based on the agreement between the EU and Turkey of 18 March 2016, is considered separately by national authorities. For UNHCR, who is not a party to this agreement, engagement in the resettlement of Syrian refugees from Turkey is considered part of its regular resettlement activities. Procedurally, UNHCR continues to receive resettlement referrals from Turkey’s Directorate General for Migration Management (DGMM) and further continues to undertake phone and face-to-face interviews with eligible candidates. However, as opposed to regular resettlement, the assessment undertaken by UNHCR is streamlined. The Luxembourgish Reception and Integration Agency (OLAI) coordinates the reception and integration phase of the resettled refugees. Although policy and law are the same for both, resettled refugees and other beneficiaries of international protection, in practice the support provided may differ in an initial phase. Thus, resettled refugees are accommodated upon arrival within a common reception centre where they shall be provided with a more intense support, especially during the first weeks after their arrival in Luxembourg. Since April 2016, a newly created service of the Luxembourgish Red Cross (Lisko) has been mandated, under the overall coordination of the Ministry of Family, Integration and the Greater Region, to take charge of the social support and integration of benefeciciaries of international protection, including resettled persons. Other national NGOs and associations also provide counselling and assistance. The present report identifies several challenges faced by both, the resettled persons as well as the competent authorities. These challenges prove particular significant in the post-arrival and integration phase. While some of these challenges are common to beneficiaries of international protection in general, some others may be more specifically relevant for resettled refugees, namely the absence of a transition period, coordination with local stakeholders, as well as timely provision of information to selected candidates for resettlement. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailLESEN LERNEN IN EINER FREMDSPRACHE Prädiktoren des Lesens bei Kindern mit Migrationshintergrund
Ertel Silva, Cintia UL; Loff, Ariana; Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL

in LESEN LERNEN IN EINER FREMDSPRACHE Prädiktoren des Lesens bei Kindern mit Migrationshintergrund (2016)

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See detailDesign of Automotive Road Racing Rim with Aid of Topology Optimization
MARIN, Laurent; Kedziora, Slawomir UL

Report (2016)

A goal of this project was do develop a new good-looking racing rim of a sport car which would be lighter than existing ones. To achieve the goal, lightweight magnesium ally Mg ZK60-T5 was applied for the ... [more ▼]

A goal of this project was do develop a new good-looking racing rim of a sport car which would be lighter than existing ones. To achieve the goal, lightweight magnesium ally Mg ZK60-T5 was applied for the rim and its preliminary shape was developed employing topology optimisation. The rim was designed for forging technology; this means that it had to have all manufacturing features required by that production process. Basing on a literature review, loads, boundary conditions and structural requirements were estab-lished which were crucial for a farther development process. The initial design was created by means of the topology optimisation and then a parametric model was developed using a CAD system. As a next step, a first part of validation were done employing FEA in order to meet strength and stiffness targets, some modifications of the CAD model were imposed. As the last step, the final validation was done by means of simply fatigue assessment. The optimisa-tion and FEA were completed using Hyperworks 14/ Inspire 2015 software and the CAD model em-ploying Autodesk Inventor 2015. The results shows that the rim design meet theoretically all structural requirements and a good-looking shape was reached. Total mass of 7.9 kg of the designed rim is obtained, which means a re-duction about 1.8 kg with comparison with a reference rim. The 3D model and a technical drawing are completed; this means that the rim can be sent to a production phase. The results of the project show also that the topology optimisation technology provided by Hyper-works and the advanced CAD system can be used to generate competitive designs with any design offices without any difficulties. [less ▲]

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See detailTESMA : Requirements, Design and Implementation of a Teaching Specification, Management and Assessment tool
Jahic, Benjamin UL

Report (2016)

The definition and organisation of programs related to their courses of educational institutions is a very complex and exhaustive task. There is a demand for such a solution by the educational ... [more ▼]

The definition and organisation of programs related to their courses of educational institutions is a very complex and exhaustive task. There is a demand for such a solution by the educational institutions, as they need a detailed program descriptions for students and instructors. This task gets even more complicated if these programs and courses needs to be certified according to some international learning standards. At the moment, the availability of such methods or tools is very limited, except for some ad-hoc guidelines, which are use by some few universities, e.g. the Cornell University. Most of the institutions (e.g. University of Luxembourg) allows the professor to us their own methods for specifying their courses. Hence, most of the institutions are sharing similar problems, but using their own defined methods (e.g. naming conventions for its programs). At an university, professors are working in various domains and using therefore their own methods for specifying their courses, which results often in an incomplete program and course description. Methods such as SWEBOK (Software Engineering Body of Knowledge) and CS2103 (Computer Science Curricula 2013) which are program certifications according to an international learning standard are almost not known and used. Thus, programs and courses from different institution cannot be compared, since there is no common structure and process for specifying them. In this master thesis, we present TESMA (Tool for Educational Specification Management and Assessment of teaching programs), a tool based on a domain-specific language, which is dedicated to the teaching domain, for specifying, managing, and assessing programs. The Messir (Scientific Approach to Requirements Engineering) development method has been used for defining the concept and the requirements of the tool. Our research concentrates on the domain-specific language (DSL) in order to define requirements and improving the quality of the DSL’s. We focus on the development of an intuitive and maintainable domain-specific language, usable by people coming from different domains, e.g. software engineers, natural sciences, social sciences, linguistic, and so on. This thesis describes the requirements, the concepts, the realisation, and implementation of the tool, which are based on a domainspecific language of high quality for specifying programs. The quality of our DSL is assessed by a complete used cases related to the University of Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailReturning Rejected Asylum Seekers: Challenges and good practices
Dionisio, Linda UL; Marcus, Noemie UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL et al

Report (2016)

The issue of non-return of rejected international protection applicants does not enjoy a high political profile on its own, but has been discussed as part of a global debate on asylum. Significant efforts ... [more ▼]

The issue of non-return of rejected international protection applicants does not enjoy a high political profile on its own, but has been discussed as part of a global debate on asylum. Significant efforts are required when considering the wide spectrum of possible reasons of non-return, some reasons depending on the countries of destination, others on the returnee himself/herself. In this respect, reasons of non return range from the non-respect of deadlines, the issuance of travel documents, postponement of removal for external reasons to the returnee, for medical reasons, the resistance of the third-country national and the lack of diplomatic representation of Luxembourg, to name but a few. In regards to the procedure, in Luxembourg the rejection of the international protection application includes the return decision. The Minister in charge of Immigration, through the Directorate of Immigration, issues this decision. The return decision only becomes enforceable when all appeals are exhausted and the final negative decision of rejection of the competent judicial authority enters into force, as appeals have suspensive effects. This decision also sets out the timeframe during which the rejected international protection applicant has to leave the country. In case the applicant does not opt for a voluntary return, the decision will also include the country to which s/he will be sent. In general, the decision provides for a period of 30 days during which the applicant has the option to leave voluntarily and to benefit from financial support in case of assisted voluntary return through the International Organization for Migration (IOM). There are two exceptions to this rule: the applicant who is considered a threat to national security, public safety or homeland security and the applicant who has already been issued a return decision before. The declaration and documentation provided during the procedure of international protection can be used to facilitate return. Subsequent applications are possible, in particular if new evidence of facts appears resulting in an increased likelihood of the applicant to qualify for international protection. For rejected international protection applicants who did not opt for voluntary return and did not receive any postponement of removals, a certain (limited) support is available while waiting for the execution of the enforceable return decision. As such, they continue to stay in reception facilities and to receive certain social benefits unless they transgress any internal rules. If an urgent need exists, rejected applicants may be granted a humanitarian social aid. However, they are not entitled to access the labour market or to receive ‘pocket money’ or the free use of transport facilities. They benefit from an access to education and training, however this access cannot constitute a possible reason for non-return. These benefits are available to rejected applicants until the moment of their removal. In order to enforce the return decision and prevent absconding, the Minister may place the rejected international applicant in the detention centre, especially if s/he is deemed to be obstructing their own return. Other possible measures include house arrest, regular reporting surrendering her/his passport or depositing a financial guarantee of 5000€. Most of these alternatives to detention were introduced with the Law of 18 December 2015 which entered into force on 1st January 2016. As a consequence, detention remains the main measure used to enforce return decisions. A number of challenges to return and measures to curb them are detailed in this study. A part of these measures have been set up to minimize the resistance to return from the returnee. First and foremost is the advocacy of the AVRR programme and the dissemination of information relating to this programme but also the establishment of a specific return programme to West Balkan countries not subject to visa requirements. Other measures aim at facilitating the execution of forced returns, such as police escorts or the placement in the detention centre. Finally, significant efforts are directed towards increasing bilateral cooperation and a constant commitment to the conclusion of readmission agreements. No special measures were introduced after 2014 in response to the exceptional flows of international protection applicants arriving in the EU. While the Return service within the Directorate of Immigration has continued to expand its participation to European Networks and in various transnational projects in matters of return, this participation was already set into motion prior to the exceptional flows of 2014. As for effective measures curbing challenges to return, this study brings to light the AVRR programme but especially the separate return programme for returnees from West Balkan countries exempt of visa requirements. The dissemination of information on voluntary return is also considered an effective policy measure, the information being made available from the very start of the international protection application. Among the cases where return is not immediately possible, a considerable distinction has to be made in regards to the reasons for the non-return. Indeed, in cases where the delay is due to the medical condition of the returnee or to material and technical reasons that are external to the returnee, a postponement of removal will be granted. This postponement allows for the rejected applicant to remain on the territory on a temporary basis, without being authorized to reside and may be accompanied by a measure of house arrest or other. In cases of postponement for medical reasons and of subsequent renewals bringing the total length of postponement over two years, the rejected applicant may apply for a residence permit for private reasons based on humanitarian grounds of exceptional seriousness. Nevertheless, apart from this exception, no official status is granted to individuals who cannot immediately be returned. Several measures of support are available to beneficiaries of postponement to removal: they have access to accommodation in the reception centres they were housed in during their procedure, they may be attributed humanitarian aid, they continue to be affiliated at the National Health Fund, they continue to have access to education and professional training and they are allowed to work through a temporary work authorization. The temporary work authorization is only valid for a single profession and a single employer for the duration of the postponement to removal, although this is an extremely rare occurrence in practice. OLAI may allocate a humanitarian aid might be allocated if the individual was already assisted by OLAI during the procedure of her/his international protection application. All of these measures apply until the moment of return. The study also puts forth a number of best practices such as the Croix-Rouge’s involvement in police trainings, their offer of punctual support to vulnerable people through international networking or the socio-psychological support given to vulnerable people placed in the detention centre among others. A special regard has to be given to AVRR programmes and their pre-departure information and counselling, the dissemination of information and the post-arrival support and reintegration assistance. Indeed, stakeholders singled the AVRR programme out as a best practice and the Luxembourgish government has made voluntary return a policy priority for a long time. However, this increased interest in voluntary returns has to be put into perspective as research shows that sustainable success of voluntary return and reintegration measures is only achieved for a very restricted number of beneficiaries (namely for young, autonomous and dynamic returnees with sizeable social networks and who were granted substantial social capital upon return). Hence, returning women remains a sensitive issue, especially if they were fleeing abusive relationships. Another factor contributing to hardship set forth by research is the difficult reintegration of returnees that have lived outside of their country of return for a prolonged period of time and are therefore unable to rely on social networks for support or for a sense of belonging. Based on these considerations, NGOs and academia cast doubts on the ‘voluntary’ nature of these return programmes, their criticism targeting the misleading labelling of these policy measures. [less ▲]

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See detail100 Year Prandtl’s Wedge - Intermediate report
Van Baars, Stefan UL

Report (2016)

The biggest problem for a shallow foundation, just as any other type of foundation, is a failure due to an overestimation of the bearing capacity. This means that the correct prediction of the bearing ... [more ▼]

The biggest problem for a shallow foundation, just as any other type of foundation, is a failure due to an overestimation of the bearing capacity. This means that the correct prediction of the bearing capacity of the foundation is often the most important part of the design of a civil structure. That is why the publication of Prandtl in 1920 about the hardness of a plastic body, was a major step in solving the bearing capacity of shallow foundations, although it is well possible that he never realised this, because his solution was not made for civil engineering purposes, but for mechanical purposes. Over the last 100 year, a lot of extensions have been made, for example with inclination factors and shape factors, and many laboratory experiments have been done and also many numerical calculations have been made. Some even try to extrapolate the failure mechanism for shallow foundations to the failure mechanism around the tip of a pile. All this scientific work leads back to the first publication made by Ludwig Prandtl in 1920. This intermediuate report “100 Year Prandtl’s wedge” has been made for all those who are interested in these fundamentals of foundation engineering and their history. [less ▲]

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See detailRapport Politique sur les Migrations et l'Asile 2015 - Luxembourg
Petry, David UL; Marcus, Noémie; Li, Lisa et al

Report (2016)

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See detailProjet Accompagnement. Description de dispositifs étrangers visant l'amélioration de la qualité des établissements scolaires.
Dierendonck, Christophe UL; Kerger, Sylvie UL; Milmeister, Marianne UL et al

Report (2016)

Le projet Accompagnement est une courte recherche de six mois (janvier à juin 2016), financée par le MENJE (Ministère de l’Education nationale, de l’Enfance et de la Jeunesse), et plus précisément par la ... [more ▼]

Le projet Accompagnement est une courte recherche de six mois (janvier à juin 2016), financée par le MENJE (Ministère de l’Education nationale, de l’Enfance et de la Jeunesse), et plus précisément par la division du SCRIPT (Service de coordination de la recherche et de l’innovation pédagogiques et technologiques), et conduite par l’Université du Luxembourg. L’étude poursuit quatre objectifs spécifiques : (1) dresser un état des lieux du soutien et de l’accompagnement actuellement proposés au Luxembourg aux écoles fondamentales dans leurs démarches de développement de la qualité scolaire, (2) décrire ce qui est mis en œuvre dans d’autres systèmes scolaires pour poursuivre cet objectif, (3) identifier des éléments intéressants et formuler des perspectives pour, le cas échéant, améliorer le dispositif actuel et (4) examiner l’intérêt et les conditions de réalisation d’études ultérieures en matière d’accompagnement des établissements scolaires au Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailProjet Accompagnement. La consultation par entretiens des acteurs-clés de l'accompagnement des écoles au Luxembourg.
Dierendonck, Christophe UL; Kerger, Sylvie UL; Milmeister, Marianne UL et al

Report (2016)

Le projet Accompagnement est une courte recherche de six mois (janvier à juin 2016), financée par le MENJE (Ministère de l’Education nationale, de l’Enfance et de la Jeunesse), et plus précisément par la ... [more ▼]

Le projet Accompagnement est une courte recherche de six mois (janvier à juin 2016), financée par le MENJE (Ministère de l’Education nationale, de l’Enfance et de la Jeunesse), et plus précisément par la division du SCRIPT (Service de coordination de la recherche et de l’innovation pédagogiques et technologiques), et conduite par l’Université du Luxembourg. L’étude poursuit quatre objectifs spécifiques : (1) dresser un état des lieux du soutien et de l’accompagnement actuellement proposés au Luxembourg aux écoles fondamentales dans leurs démarches de développement de la qualité scolaire, (2) décrire ce qui est mis en œuvre dans d’autres systèmes scolaires pour poursuivre cet objectif, (3) identifier des éléments intéressants et formuler des perspectives pour, le cas échéant, améliorer le dispositif actuel et (4) examiner l’intérêt et les conditions de réalisation d’études ultérieures en matière d’accompagnement des établissements scolaires au Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailProjet Accompagnement. L'enquête par questionnaire auprès des présidents et des membres de comités d'école.
Dierendonck, Christophe UL; Kerger, Sylvie UL; Milmeister, Marianne UL et al

Report (2016)

Le projet Accompagnement est une courte recherche de six mois (janvier à juin 2016), financée par le MENJE (Ministère de l’Education nationale, de l’Enfance et de la Jeunesse), et plus précisément par la ... [more ▼]

Le projet Accompagnement est une courte recherche de six mois (janvier à juin 2016), financée par le MENJE (Ministère de l’Education nationale, de l’Enfance et de la Jeunesse), et plus précisément par la division du SCRIPT (Service de coordination de la recherche et de l’innovation pédagogiques et technologiques), et conduite par l’Université du Luxembourg. L’étude poursuit quatre objectifs spécifiques : (1) dresser un état des lieux du soutien et de l’accompagnement actuellement proposés au Luxembourg aux écoles fondamentales dans leurs démarches de développement de la qualité scolaire, (2) décrire ce qui est mis en œuvre dans d’autres systèmes scolaires pour poursuivre cet objectif, (3) identifier des éléments intéressants et formuler des perspectives pour, le cas échéant, améliorer le dispositif actuel et (4) examiner l’intérêt et les conditions de réalisation d’études ultérieures en matière d’accompagnement des établissements scolaires au Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailProjet Accompagnement. Politiques et dispositifs au Luxembourg et à l’étranger visant l’amélioration de la qualité des établissements scolaires. Rapport synthétique.
Dierendonck, Christophe UL; Kerger, Sylvie UL; Milmeister, Marianne UL et al

Report (2016)

Le projet Accompagnement est une courte recherche de six mois (janvier à juin 2016), financée par le MENJE (Ministère de l’Education nationale, de l’Enfance et de la Jeunesse), et plus précisément par la ... [more ▼]

Le projet Accompagnement est une courte recherche de six mois (janvier à juin 2016), financée par le MENJE (Ministère de l’Education nationale, de l’Enfance et de la Jeunesse), et plus précisément par la division du SCRIPT (Service de coordination de la recherche et de l’innovation pédagogiques et technologiques), et conduite par l’Université du Luxembourg. L’étude poursuit quatre objectifs spécifiques : (1) dresser un état des lieux du soutien et de l’accompagnement actuellement proposés au Luxembourg aux écoles fondamentales dans leurs démarches de développement de la qualité scolaire, (2) décrire ce qui est mis en œuvre dans d’autres systèmes scolaires pour poursuivre cet objectif, (3) identifier des éléments intéressants et formuler des perspectives pour, le cas échéant, améliorer le dispositif actuel et (4) examiner l’intérêt et les conditions de réalisation d’études ultérieures en matière d’accompagnement des établissements scolaires au Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailReACP: A Semi-Automated Framework for Reverse-engineering and Testing of Access Control Policies of Web Applications
Le, Ha Thanh UL; Nguyen, Duy Cu UL; Briand, Lionel UL

Report (2016)

This technical report details our a semi-automated framework for the reverse-engineering and testing of access control (AC) policies for web-based applications. In practice, AC specifications are often ... [more ▼]

This technical report details our a semi-automated framework for the reverse-engineering and testing of access control (AC) policies for web-based applications. In practice, AC specifications are often missing or poorly documented, leading to AC vulnerabilities. Our goal is to learn and recover AC policies from implementation, and assess them to find AC issues. Built on top of a suite of security tools, our framework automatically explores a system under test, mines domain input specifications from access request logs, and then, generates and executes more access requests using combinatorial test generation. We apply machine learning on the obtained data to characterise relevant attributes that influence access control to learn policies. Finally, the inferred policies are used for detecting AC issues, being vulnerabilities or implementation errors. We have evaluated our framework on three open-source applications with respect to correctness and completeness. The results are very promising in terms of the quality of inferred policies, more than 94% of them are correct with respect to implemented AC mechanisms. The remaining incorrect policies are mainly due to our unrefined permission classification. Moreover, a careful analysis of these policies has revealed 92 vulnerabilities, many of them are new. [less ▲]

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See detailWatch out for This Commit! A Study of Influential Software Changes
Li, Daoyuan UL; Li, Li UL; Kim, Dongsun UL et al

Report (2016)

One single code change can significantly influence a wide range of software systems and their users. For example, 1) adding a new feature can spread defects in several modules, while 2) changing an API ... [more ▼]

One single code change can significantly influence a wide range of software systems and their users. For example, 1) adding a new feature can spread defects in several modules, while 2) changing an API method can improve the performance of all client programs. Developers often may not clearly know whether their or others’ changes are influential at commit time. Rather, it turns out to be influential after affecting many aspects of a system later. This paper investigates influential software changes and proposes an approach to identify them early, i.e., immediately when they are applied. We first conduct a post- mortem analysis to discover existing influential changes by using intuitions such as isolated changes and changes referred by other changes in 10 open source projects. Then we re-categorize all identified changes through an open-card sorting process. Subsequently, we conduct a survey with 89 developers to confirm our influential change categories. Finally, from our ground truth we extract features, including metrics such as the complexity of changes, terms in commit logs and file centrality in co-change graphs, to build ma- chine learning classifiers. The experiment results show that our prediction model achieves overall with random samples 86.8% precision, 74% recall and 80.4% F-measure respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailBayesian inference for material parameter identification
Rappel, Hussein UL; Beex, Lars UL; Hale, Jack UL et al

Report (2016)

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See detailStatic Analysis of Android Apps: A Systematic Literature Review
Li, Li UL; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL; Papadakis, Mike UL et al

Report (2016)

Context: Static analysis approaches have been proposed to assess the security of Android apps, by searching for known vulnerabilities or actual malicious code. The literature thus has proposed a large ... [more ▼]

Context: Static analysis approaches have been proposed to assess the security of Android apps, by searching for known vulnerabilities or actual malicious code. The literature thus has proposed a large body of works, each of which attempts to tackle one or more of the several challenges that program analyzers face when dealing with Android apps. Objective: We aim to provide a clear view of the state-of-the-art works that statically analyze Android apps, from which we highlight the trends of static analysis approaches, pinpoint where the focus has been put and enumerate the key aspects where future researches are still needed. Method: We have performed a systematic literature review which involves studying around 90 research papers published in software engineering, programming languages and security venues. This review is performed mainly in five dimensions: problems targeted by the approach, fundamental techniques used by authors, static analysis sensitivities considered, android characteristics taken into account and the scale of evaluation performed. Results: Our in-depth examination have led to several key findings: 1) Static analysis is largely performed to uncover security and privacy issues; 2) The Soot framework and the Jimple intermediate representation are the most adopted basic support tool and format, respectively; 3) Taint analysis remains the most applied technique in research approaches; 4) Most approaches support several analysis sensitivities, but very few approaches consider path-sensitivity; 5) There is no single work that has been proposed to tackle all challenges of static analysis that are related to Android programming; and 6) Only a small portion of state-of-the-art works have made their artifacts publicly available. Conclusion: The research community is still facing a number of challenges for building approaches that are aware altogether of implicit-Flows, dynamic code loading features, reflective calls, native code and multi-threading, in order to implement sound and highly precise static analyzers. [less ▲]

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See detailQuality of work – Index - 2. Forschungsbericht zur Weiterentwicklung des Arbeitsqualitätsindexes in Luxemburg
Sischka, Philipp UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

Report (2016)

Der Survey zu dem „Quality of Work Index Luxembourg“ (QoW), der von der Universität Luxemburg und der luxemburgischen Chambre des Salariés entwickelt wurde (Steffgen, Kohl, 2013; Sischka, Steffgen, 2015 ... [more ▼]

Der Survey zu dem „Quality of Work Index Luxembourg“ (QoW), der von der Universität Luxemburg und der luxemburgischen Chambre des Salariés entwickelt wurde (Steffgen, Kohl, 2013; Sischka, Steffgen, 2015), wurde 2015 bereits zum dritten Mal in einer telefonischen Befragung erhoben. Ziel des Index ist es, die erlebte Arbeitssituation und -qualität luxemburgischer Arbeitnehmer zu erfassen. Der vorliegende Bericht dokumentiert die psychometrische Testung der Güte des aktuellen Erhebungsinstru-ments. In einem ersten Schritt erfolgt die Beschreibung der Verteilung der für die Skalen genutzten Items (Mittelwert, SD, Schiefe, Kurtosis). Im nächsten Schritt erfolgt die Überprüfung der internen Konsistenz der Skalen mittels verschiedener Reliabilitätsstatistiken (Cronbach’s Alpha, Korrelationsanalysen der Items) sowie Koeffizienten zur Beschreibung der Skalenverteilung. Wo vorhanden werden Indikatoren eingesetzt, um die Validität der Konstrukte zu eruieren. Explorative und konfirmatorische Faktoren-analysen dienen dazu, zu testen, ob die Items auf den a priori festgelegten Faktoren laden und ob sich die unterstellte Faktorenstruktur auch in den Daten zeigt. Außerdem werden die Zusammenhänge der Skalen mittels Korrelationsanalysen überprüft. Die QoW-Skalen werden außerdem auf verschiedene Well-Being-Skalen regressiert, um deren Relevanz für den QoW-Index zu überprüfen. Da die Befragung 2015 teilweise als Panelbefragung durchgeführt wurde (Panelbefragte n = 762), wird außerdem überprüft, ob es hinsichtlich demographischer Eigenschaften der Befragten, hinsichtlich der QoW-Skalen oder hinsichtlich verschiedener Well-Being-Maße zu systematischen Ausfällen gekom-men ist. Ebenso werden einige Längsschnitt-Regressionsanalysen gerechnet, um zu überprüfen, ob einige Arbeitsbedingungen längerfristige Effekte auf das Well-Being der Arbeitnehmer in Luxemburg haben. Abschließend wird das gesamte Erhebungsinstrument zusammenfassend diskutiert und Empfehlungen bezüglich der Skalen, der Erhebung demographischer Variablen sowie des Designs der weiteren Befra-gungen gegeben. [less ▲]

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See detailGemRBAC-DSL: a High-level Specification Language for Role-based Access Control Policies
Ben Fadhel, Ameni UL; Bianculli, Domenico UL; Briand, Lionel UL

Report (2016)

A role-based access control (RBAC) policy restricts a user to perform operations based on her role within an organization. Several RBAC models have been proposed to represent different types of RBAC ... [more ▼]

A role-based access control (RBAC) policy restricts a user to perform operations based on her role within an organization. Several RBAC models have been proposed to represent different types of RBAC policies. However, the expressiveness of these models has not been matched by specification languages for RBAC policies. Indeed, existing policy specification languages do not support all the types of RBAC policies defined in the literature. In this paper we aim to bridge the gap between highly-expressive RBAC models and policy specification languages, by presenting GemRBAC-DSL, a new specification language designed on top of an existing, generalized conceptual model for RBAC. The language sports a syntax close to natural language, to encourage its adoption among practitioners. We also define semantic checks to detect conflicts and inconsistencies among the policies written in a GemRBAC-DSL specification. We show how the semantics of GemRBAC-DSL can be expressed in terms of an existing formalization of RBAC policies as OCL (Object Constraint Language) constraints on the corresponding RBAC conceptual model. This formalization paves the way to define a model-driven approach for the enforcement of policies written in GemRBAC-DSL. [less ▲]

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See detailDes séparations aux rencontres en camps et colos Rapport d’évaluation du dispositif #GénérationCampColo
Kerivel, Aude UL; Bacou, Magalie; Bataille, Jean-Marie et al

Report (2016)

Renforcer la cohésion sociale et le vivre ensemble dans notre société, tout en favorisant les mixités des jeunesses au sein des camps et des colos, et en contribuant à l’innovation de ces institutions qui ... [more ▼]

Renforcer la cohésion sociale et le vivre ensemble dans notre société, tout en favorisant les mixités des jeunesses au sein des camps et des colos, et en contribuant à l’innovation de ces institutions qui connaissent une désaffection chronique, un triple objectif du dispositif #GenerationCampColo que ce rapport d’évaluation cherche à interroger. Outre des pistes d’innovation, la recherche évaluative interroge les manières de mixer les jeunesses et met en lumière les processus de séparation des publics, en amont, qui entravent les processus de mixité. Ces séparations découlent des politiques publiques sectorielles et du mode de fonctionnement des camps et des colos. Comment passer alors d’une situation de séparation des jeunes, en publics hiérarchisés, à une égalité de traitement dans l’organisation des séjours ? Les résultats montrent la nécessité de construire des séjours « inclusifs » basés sur un accès inconditionnel et un accueil universel. Ces préalables permettront de questionner et discuter, autour d'un « faire ensemble » commun, les socialisations différenciées et les représentations hiérarchisées. [less ▲]

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See detailIsogeometric boundary element methods for linear elastic fracture mechanics
Peng, Xuan; Atroshchenko, Elena; Kerfriden, Pierre et al

Report (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 269 (20 UL)
See detailReport on digitalisation in Company law
Conac, Pierre-Henri UL; Armour, J.; Bartkus, G. et al

Report (2016)

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See detailAutomated Testing of Web Application Firewalls
Appelt, Dennis UL; Nguyen, Duy Cu UL; Briand, Lionel UL

Report (2016)

Web application firewalls (WAF) are an indispensable mechanism to protect online systems from attacks. However, the fast pace at which new kinds of attacks appear and their increasing sophistication ... [more ▼]

Web application firewalls (WAF) are an indispensable mechanism to protect online systems from attacks. However, the fast pace at which new kinds of attacks appear and their increasing sophistication require WAFs to be updated and tested regularly as otherwise they will be circumvented. In this paper, we focus our research on WAFs and SQL injection attacks, but the general principles and strategy could be adapted to other contexts. We present a machine learning-driven testing approach to automatically detect holes in WAFs that let SQL injection attacks bypass them. At the beginning, the approach can automatically generate diverse attacks (tests) and then submit them to a system that is protected by a WAF. Incrementally learning from the tests that are blocked or accepted by the WAF, our approach can then select tests that exhibit characteristics associated with bypassing the WAF and mutate them to efficiently generate new bypassing attacks. In the race against cyberattacks, time is vital. Being able to learn and anticipate more attacks that can circumvent a WAF in a timely manner is very important in order to quickly fix or fine-tune protection rules. We developed a tool that implements the approach and evaluated it on ModSecurity, a widely used WAF, and a proprietary WAF that protects a financial institution. Evaluation results indicate that our proposed technique is efficient at generating SQL injection attacks that can bypass a WAF and can be used to identify successful attack patterns. [less ▲]

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See detailReport on Information on Groups
Conac, Pierre-Henri UL; Armour, J.; Bartkus, G. et al

Report (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (1 UL)
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See detailThe Case for FIFO Real-Time Scheduling
Altmeyer, Sebastian UL; Sundharam, Sakthivel Manikandan UL; Navet, Nicolas UL

Report (2016)

Selecting the right scheduling policy is a crucial issue in the development of an embedded real-time application. Whereas scheduling policies are typically judged according to their ability to schedule ... [more ▼]

Selecting the right scheduling policy is a crucial issue in the development of an embedded real-time application. Whereas scheduling policies are typically judged according to their ability to schedule task sets at a high processor utilizations, other concerns, such as predictability and simplicity are often overlooked.In this paper, we argue that FIFO scheduling with offsets is a suitable choice when these concerns play a key role. To this end, we examine the predictability of FIFO, present a schedulability analysis for it and evaluate both, performance and predictability of FIFO scheduling with and without offsets. Our results show that FIFO with offsets exhibits competitive performance for task with regular periods, at an unmatched predictability. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in Immigration Status and Purpose of Stay
Becker, Fabienne UL; Dionisio, Linda UL; Li, Lisa UL et al

Report (2016)

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See detailIntegration of beneficiaries of international/humanitarian protection into the labour market: Policies and good practices
Petry, David UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2016)

In Luxembourgish legislation the term “international protection” includes both refugee status and subsidiary protection status. Integration of beneficiaries of international protection into the ... [more ▼]

In Luxembourgish legislation the term “international protection” includes both refugee status and subsidiary protection status. Integration of beneficiaries of international protection into the Luxembourgish labour market might appear quite unproblematic at first glance. From a legal point of view, the access is indeed very much open to both beneficiaries of international protection as well as beneficiaries of subsidiary protection. As from 2006 onwards, the legislator proceeded with an approximation of both statuses, providing the same rights to both types of beneficiaries of international protection. As soon as the applicants are granted international protection they are authorised to engage in employed or self-employed activities under the same conditions as Luxembourgish nationals, with the exceptionof civil servant jobs. This is also true for most of the support measures that aim to advance or enhance the access to employment, whether on the level of education, vocational training, language learning, recognition of diploma, counselling, social aid or access to housing. In each of those areas, the beneficiaries of international may in principle benefit from equivalent access as provided to other migrants, third-countrynationals or Luxembourgish nationals. Yet, the reality on the ground seldom matches the aims of the legislative framework. Effective access to the labour market remains a significant challenge for beneficiaries of international protection in order to fully integrate in Luxembourgish society. The linguistic regime as well as the high demands in terms of language requirements constitute a first major hurdle, both at the level of education/vocational training and the labour market. Rather than being able to immediately access the regular education system, respectively the labour market, refugees must first engage in a learning process sometimes coupled with administrative procedures (i.e. recognition of diplomas) that may significantly slow down the integration process. The transition period that begins once the applicant is granted international protection status appears to be particularly challenging. Indeed, several measures from which the applicants for international protection benefited during the procedure will no longer be available once they are granted the status. Thus, social aid, including housing, provided to international protection seekers will no longer be applicable to refugees. Even though national authorities have implemented several specific targeted measures in order to facilitate the transition period (i.e. progressive financial contribution to accommodation costs), it remains a phase of instability and uncertainty for the refugees and their families. This also stresses the need for employment-related support measures, which in Luxembourg are implemented in a more general integration framework. Thus, most of the support measures that exist for beneficiaries of international protection are not tailored to them in particular, but they are also open to other types of migrants or foreigners living in Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detail2015 Lab report - Legato report 001
Bordas, Stéphane UL

Report (2016)

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See detailAnalyse de l'utilisation des (e-)pétitions à la Chambre des Députés
Kies, Raphaël UL

Report (2016)

The report was commissioned by the Chamber of Deputies for preparing the campaign around the constitutional referendum that was held in June 2015. It has two objectives. The first is to assess the ... [more ▼]

The report was commissioned by the Chamber of Deputies for preparing the campaign around the constitutional referendum that was held in June 2015. It has two objectives. The first is to assess the citizens’ opinion and awareness on the four referendum issues. The evaluation was made on the basis of four citizen consultations composed by a representative panel of citizens resident in Luxembourg. In addition of providing an overview of the state of citizens’ knowledge and opinions (and their evolution), the analysis allows to assess how participants perceive the consultation process itself. The second objective is to present and discuss concrete proposals to include citizen’s in the constitutional reform and in the referendum campaign. This last part is based on the teachings of the consultation carried out in Luxembourg as well as three case studies where people were fully involved in the constitutional reform process: the case of Iceland, Ireland and the State of Oregon (USA). [less ▲]

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See detailPrivacy-Preserving Proximity Services
Haus, Michael; Emara, Karim Ahmed Awad El-Sayed UL; Ott, Joerg

Report (2016)

In the last years, the paradigm of personal computing changed drastically, moving away from stationary PCs and heavyweight laptops to mobile devices. This change is based on the ubiquity of mobile ... [more ▼]

In the last years, the paradigm of personal computing changed drastically, moving away from stationary PCs and heavyweight laptops to mobile devices. This change is based on the ubiquity of mobile interconnected devices leading to great opportunities for services that utilize location, such as navigation or communication with nearby friends. Location-based Services (LBS) are widely used based on a centralized architecture and absolute GPS positions. We focus on Proximity-based Services (PBS) based on peer-to-peer architecture to detect what is around us. In addition, we provide further insights about which data are potentially useful to create meaningful proximity information. Many LBS and PBS achieve their functionality without advanced privacy protection mechanisms. However, mobile data especially location data is sensitive, because adversaries can infer whereabouts of mobile users. Moreover, the uniqueness of human mobility traces is high yielding to a high identification rate of individual users. Therefore, we review the most recent literature in the domain of private proximity testing including attack models. [less ▲]

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See detailhistograph. Graph-based exploration, crowdsourced indexation
Guido, Daniele; Wieneke, Lars UL; During, Marten UL

Report (2016)

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See detailMIGRATION INTERNATIONALE AU LUXEMBOURG: Système d'observation permanente des migrations OCDE
Nienaber, Birte UL; Jacobs, Sarah UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL et al

Report (2016)

Le Luxembourg est une terre d’immigration depuis plus de 50 ans. Situé au cœur de l’Europe, le pays attire aussi bien les citoyens de l’UE que les ressortissants des pays du monde entier. Ces populations ... [more ▼]

Le Luxembourg est une terre d’immigration depuis plus de 50 ans. Situé au cœur de l’Europe, le pays attire aussi bien les citoyens de l’UE que les ressortissants des pays du monde entier. Ces populations jouent un rôle central vis-à-vis de l’économie du pays, et apportent une importante contribution à la croissance de la population et au marché du travail. En 2015, la population du Luxembourg a poursuivi sa croissance stable d’environ 13 000 personnes par an, en augmentation de 2,36 %, passant de 562 958 au 1er janvier 2015 à 576 249 au 1er janvier 2016. Les citoyens étrangers ont continué à jouer un rôle essentiel dans la croissance de la population du Luxembourg, aussi bien en matière d’immigration nette que sur le plan des naissances. L’immigration nette affichait un total de +11 159 personnes en 2015, signifiant un surplus d’arrivées par rapport aux départs. La proportion de citoyens étrangers ressortissants de pays de l’UE était de 76,1 %, les ressortissants de pays tiers représentaient 32,9 %, tandis que la contribution des ressortissants luxembourgeois était négative à -9 %. Le nombre de naissances a enregistré un pic en 2015, égal à celui de 2013, avec 6 115 naissances au total. Les ressortissants étrangers ont contribué à l’accroissement naturel du Luxembourg avec un surplus de 2 150 naissances tandis qu’un déficit de naissances de -18 a été enregistré chez les ressortissants luxembourgeois. 2015 a également été une année record en ce qui concerne les naturalisations. Les Belges ont été les plus nombreux à avoir acquis la nationalité luxembourgeoise en 2015, suivis par les Français et les Portugais. Au 1er janvier 2016, 46,7 % des résidents luxembourgeois étaient étrangers. 34,6 % de la population étrangère totale étaient des Portugais, qui demeuraient la nationalité la plus représentée, suivis par les Français (15,5 %) et les Italiens (7,5 %). Les ressortissants de pays tiers les plus représentés étaient monténégrins. En raison du conflit syrien et de l’afflux de demandeurs de protection internationale qui en a suivi, la population syrienne vivant au Luxembourg a enregistré la plus forte hausse proportionnelle en 2015, avec une croissance de 461,5 % entre janvier 2015 et janvier 2016. En observant le marché du travail au Luxembourg, le rôle central joué par les ressortissants étrangers dans l’économie nationale devient évident. Au premier trimestre 2016, les résidents luxembourgeois représentaient 55 % de la main-d’œuvre salariée du pays. Parmi eux, 27,5 % étaient des ressortissants luxembourgeois, tandis que les ressortissants des Etats membres de l’UE représentaient 24,2 % et les ressortissants de pays tiers 3,3 %. Les travailleurs transfrontaliers venant de France, de Belgique et d’Allemagne représentaient 45 % du total des salariés au Luxembourg. Ils travaillent principalement dans les secteurs manufacturiers, la construction et le commerce. Le secteur HORECA (hôtellerie, restauration et cafés) recrute majoritairement des résidents étrangers. Les ressortissants de pays tiers qui ne bénéficient pas des accords de libre circulation doivent être détenteurs d’un titre de séjour pour pouvoir entrer au Luxembourg. Une augmentation du nombre de premières délivrances de titres de séjour a été enregistrée pour la plupart des catégories par rapport à l’année précédente, où une baisse dans la quasi-totalité des catégories avait été observée. En 2015, les titres de séjour étaient le plus souvent délivrés dans les catégories « Membre de famille », « Travailleur salarié » et « Carte bleue européenne ». L’année 2015 a été marquée par une forte augmentation du nombre de demandes de protection internationale qui a plus que doublé par rapport à 2014 (2 447 demandes en 2015). Malgré une forte augmentation fin 2015, il y a eu un ralentissement de la tendance en 2016. Néanmoins, le nombre de demandes de protection internationale demeure plus élevé qu’en 2013/2014. La plupart des demandes émanaient de ressortissants syriens ou iraquiens, (27,3 % et 22 % respectivement), qui ne représentaient que 9 % et 1 % respectivement en 2014. De plus, les taux de reconnaissance des statuts (statut de réfugié et statut conféré par la protection subsidiaire) et de retour ont augmenté. En 2015, le Luxembourg s’est engagé à accueillir 557 personnes conformément à la décision du Conseil de l’Union européenne visant à relocaliser 160 000 demandeurs de protection internationale venant de Grèce et d’Italie. Ainsi, dans le cadre de cette décision, 114 réfugiés ont été relocalisés depuis la Grèce et 20 réfugiés ont été relocalisés depuis l’Italie avant la mi-août 2016. En outre, 46 réfugiés en provenance de Turquie ont été réinstallés en 2015, suivis de 52 autres réfugiés conformément à l’engagement pris par le Luxembourg d’accueillir 194 réfugiés de Turquie dans le contexte de l’accord conclu en mars 2016 entre l’UE et la Turquie. De plus, 44 Syriens ont été accueillis en 2015 suite à une demande d’assistance émanant des autorités allemandes. Face à un afflux grandissant de demandeurs de protection internationale, un programme d’accueil d’urgence a été développé en 2015. Le programme prévoyait l’établissement de centres de primo-accueil ainsi que le renforcement des ressources humaines de l’Office luxembourgeois de l’accueil et de l’intégration (OLAI) et de la Direction de l’immigration, placée sous l’autorité du Ministère des Affaires étrangères. L’OLAI a également renforcé sa collaboration inter-ministérielle et avec les parties prenantes au niveau local. Un accent a également été mis sur l’intégration, avec des déploiements majeurs, dont la mise en place de projets d’intégration par les municipalités dans le contexte du « Plan d’intégration communal » et avec la création du Centre luxembourgeois pour l’intégration et la cohésion sociale (LISKO), qui soutient les bénéficiaires de protection internationale à s’intégrer dans la société luxembourgeoise. En 2015 et 2016, le Luxembourg a continué à transposer et à mettre en application plusieurs directives de l’UE. La loi du 18 décembre 2015 relative à l’accueil de demandeurs de protection internationale et de protection temporaire transpose la Directive 2013/33/UE (refonte : conditions d’accueil) dans le droit national. La loi du 18 décembre 2015 sur la protection internationale et la protection temporaire transpose la Directive 2013/32/UE (refonte : procédure), établissant les procédures d’octroi et de retrait de la protection internationale et de la protection subsidiaire et la standardisation du contenu de cette protection. Le projet de loi mettant en application la Directive 2013/55/UE sur la reconnaissance des qualifications professionnelles a été déposé à la Chambre des députés en 2015 et le projet de loi mettant en application la Directive 2014/36/UE relative aux travailleurs saisonniers et la Directive 2014/66/UE relative aux titres de séjour des personnes faisant l’objet d’un transfert intragroupe et des investisseurs a été présenté en 2016. En ce qui concerne la transposition de la Directive applicable à la Carte bleue, un décret du gouvernement a été émis le 22 mai 2015 établissant les professions concernées par le seuil salarial inférieur pour l’embauche de travailleurs hautement qualifiés. Au niveau national, plusieurs changements législatifs visent à répondre aux enjeux posés par l’hétérogénéité du Luxembourg. Le projet de loi n 6410 relatif à la jeunesse, déposé à la Chambre des députés le 6 février 2015, permet aux travailleurs transfrontaliers d’accéder au système de chèques-services précédemment réservé aux résidents luxembourgeois. Le projet de loi n 6893 relatif à la reconnaissance des qualifications a été déposé à la Chambre des députés en octobre 2015. Lors du référendum du 7 juin 2015, la proposition visant à étendre le droit de vote aux résidents non luxembourgeois a été rejetée par une vaste majorité, qui considérait l’acquisition de la nationalité comme un moyen plus approprié d’acquérir le droit de vote. Par conséquent, le gouvernement a pris des mesures en vue de réformer la loi sur la nationalité, afin d’assouplir les critères à remplir pour l’acquisition de la nationalité, et ainsi permettre d’élargir la participation aux élections. Le projet de loi n 6977 sur la nationalité a été déposé à la Chambre des députés le 24 mars 2016. Il prévoit de réduire la durée de résidence requise de sept à cinq années et de réintroduire la procédure d’option pour les personnes ayant des liens étroits avec le Luxembourg. Le niveau de maîtrise du luxembourgeois, langue nationale du Grand-Duché, a été au centre des débats sur le projet de loi relatif à la nationalité. Certains craignaient que les exigences linguistiques ne fassent obstacle à l’acquisition de la nationalité par les ressortissants étrangers, tandis que d’autres mettaient en avant la maîtrise de la langue en tant que facteur déterminant d’intégration, et donc d’acquisition de la nationalité.   [less ▲]

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See detailStates and the development of International Criminal Law: Report on Greece Report on Greece
Pichou, Maria UL

Report (2016)

The report will be published in English and Spanish in a book that will comprise all reports by each Rapporteur/Secretary of the Foundation for Advanced Studies in Legal Sciences in Argentina (FAECJ). The ... [more ▼]

The report will be published in English and Spanish in a book that will comprise all reports by each Rapporteur/Secretary of the Foundation for Advanced Studies in Legal Sciences in Argentina (FAECJ). The purpose of the report is to provide a short and profound view of the development of international criminal law in each country. [less ▲]

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See detailVielfalt betreuter Kindheiten. Ethnographische Fallstudien zu den Bildungs- und Betreuungsarrangements 2-4jähriger Kinder
Bollig, Sabine UL; Honig, Michael-Sebastian UL; Nienhaus, Sylvia UL

Report (2016)

Kinder werden gemeinhin als Adressaten, aber weniger als Akteure von institutionellen Angeboten der Bildung und Betreuung in früher Kindheit wahrgenommen – und das obwohl sie ein komplexes Leben zwischen ... [more ▼]

Kinder werden gemeinhin als Adressaten, aber weniger als Akteure von institutionellen Angeboten der Bildung und Betreuung in früher Kindheit wahrgenommen – und das obwohl sie ein komplexes Leben zwischen Familie, Kindertagesbetreuung und Vorschule führen. Das Forschungsprojekt "CHILD - Children in the Luxembourgian Day Care System" hat das Feld der frühen Bildung und Betreuung von der Position der Kinder aus betrachtet und in kindheitstheoretischer und praxisanalytischer Perspektive nach der Vielfalt betreuter Kindheiten gefragt. Vom Standpunkt der Kinder aus differenziert sich das Luxemburger Feld von Bildung und Betreuung in früher Kindheit in vielfältige Bildungs- und Betreuungsarrangements aus. Sie bestimmen nicht nur die Erfahrungen, die Kinder mit nichtfamilialer Bildung und Betreuung machen – und man muss hinzufügen: die nur Kinder machen –, sondern sie bedingen auch die strukturelle Position der Kinder als Mitgestalter von Bildungs- und Betreuungslandschaften früher Kindheit. Bildungs- und Betreuungsarrangements sind eine Domäne der Kinder, obwohl sie sich in einem Zusammenspiel vieler aufeinander bezogener Orte, Kontexte und Akteure realisieren. In diesem Forschungsbericht werden acht ethnographische Fallstudien präsentiert, welche die Multilokalität, Multikontextualität und Multiperspektivität der Bildungs- und Betreuungsarrangements zwei- bis vierjähriger Kinder im Lichte der Alltagspraxis der Kinder analysieren. Die acht Fallstudien zeigen daher nicht nur, dass und wie Kinder zur täglichen Herstellung des Feldes früher Bildung und Betreuung beitragen, sie machen auch die Vielfalt betreuter Kindheiten in Luxemburg sichtbar. [less ▲]

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See detailA Representation Theorem for Abstract Cumulative Aggregation
Ambrossio, Diego Agustin UL; Parent, Xavier UL; van der Torre, Leon UL

Report (2016)

From any two conditional obligations “X if A” and “Y if B”, cumulative aggregation derives the combined obligation “X ∪ Y if A ∪ (B \ X)”, whereas simple aggregation derives the obligation “X ∪ Y if A ∪ ... [more ▼]

From any two conditional obligations “X if A” and “Y if B”, cumulative aggregation derives the combined obligation “X ∪ Y if A ∪ (B \ X)”, whereas simple aggregation derives the obligation “X ∪ Y if A ∪ B”. We propose FC systems consisting of cumulative aggregation together with factual detachment, and we give a representation result for FC systems, as well as for FA systems consisting of simple aggregation together with factual detachment. We relate FC and FA systems to each other and to input/output logics recently introduced by Parent and van der Torre. [less ▲]

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See detailSupporting young adults with special educational needs (SEN) in obtaining higher qualifications
Limbach-Reich, Arthur UL; Powell, Justin J W UL

Report (2016)

Supporting young adults with special educational needs in obtaining higher qualifications is an ambitious, desirable and noble project, occasionally labeled “university for all” or “full inclusion in ... [more ▼]

Supporting young adults with special educational needs in obtaining higher qualifications is an ambitious, desirable and noble project, occasionally labeled “university for all” or “full inclusion in higher education”. But there is a risk, that beyond inclusive rhetoric, universities persist in being perceived by national policymakers and also perceive themselves as elite organizatins, that is only accessible to highly educated and highly skilled persons that will be successful in labour market competition and so promise to recapitalize (increasingly high) investments in higher education. Not inclusion efforts and individuals with disabilities, but rather national economic growth and international competitiveness are in the centre of contemporary concerns, despite the worldwide ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and global acknowledgment of inclusive education as a human right. While some students with disabilities certainly do manage to adapt to the existing systems of higher education, especially when they receive reasonable accommodations they deserve, but there will be other students with more severe disabilities who may need more support to reach their individual learning goals and who may not promise to 'return' the invest. Yet not only those students with disabilities who are labeled as incompatible with employment remain persistently excluded from higher education. Having in mind this risk, the rhetoric of “university for all” has to be reconsidered. At the same time that many universities are seriously challenged by reductions in public funding, universal design principles diffuse worldwide, and the UN Convention mandates accessibility at all levels of learning, including higher education. [less ▲]

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See detailINTERNATIONAL MIGRATION IN LUXEMBOURG Continuous Reporting System on Migration OECD
Nienaber, Birte UL; Jacobs, Sarah UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL et al

Report (2016)

Luxembourg has been a country of immigration for more than 50 years. Located in the heart of Europe, it holds a strong attraction for EU citizens and nationals from countries all around the world, who ... [more ▼]

Luxembourg has been a country of immigration for more than 50 years. Located in the heart of Europe, it holds a strong attraction for EU citizens and nationals from countries all around the world, who play a central role in the national economy, making an important contribution to the population growth and the labour market. Over the course of 2015, Luxembourg’s population has continued its steady growth of approximately 13.000 people per year, increasing by 2,36%, from 562.958 on 1st January 2015 to 576.249 on 1st January 2016. Foreign citizens have continued to play an essential role in Luxembourg’s population growth, both in terms of net migration and births. The total net migration amounted to +11.159 individuals in 2015, which signifies a surplus of arrivals over departures. Foreign EU citizens accounted for 76,1%; third-country nationals represented 32,9%, while Luxembourgish nationals’ contribution was negative, at -9%. The number of births in 2015 was the highest on record, equal to that in 2013, with 6.115 births in total. Foreigners contributed a birth surplus of 2.150 to Luxembourg’s natural increase, while a birth deficit of -18 was recorded for Luxembourgish nationals. 2015 also marked a record year regarding naturalisations, with Belgians remaining the citizens that obtain citizenship most frequently, followed by the French and the Portuguese. On 1st January 2016, 46,7% of Luxembourg’s residents were foreigners. Representing 34,6% of the total foreign population, Portuguese remained the most represented nationality, followed by France (15,5%) and Italy (7,5%), while the most numerous third-country nationals were Montenegrins. Due to the war in Syria and the influx of applicants for international protection that followed, the Syrian population living in Luxembourg showed the highest proportional increase during 2015, growing by 461,5% from January 2015 to January 2016. A look at Luxembourg’s labour market also reveals the central role that foreigners play in the national economy. In the first quarter of 2016, residents of Luxembourg represented 55% of the country’s salaried workforce. Of these, 27,5% were Luxembourgish nationals, while EU nationals represented 24,2% and third-country nationals 3,3%. Cross-border workers from France, Belgium and Germany represented 45% of all salaried workers in Luxembourg. They mainly work in the manufacturing industries, construction and commerce. A majority of recruitments in the HORECA sector are of foreign residents. Third-country nationals who do not benefit from free movement must be issued with a residence permit in order to enter Luxembourg. An increase in first issues of residence permits was recorded for most categories compared to the preceding year, which had experienced a decrease in almost all categories. In 2015, residence permits were most frequently issued in the “family member”, “salaried worker” and “European Blue Card” categories. 2015 was marked by a significant increase in the number of applications for international protection, which has more than doubled when compared to 2014 (2.447 applications in 2015). While there was a strong increase at the end of 2015, the trend slowed down in 2016. Nonetheless, the number of applications for international protection remains higher than levels in 2013/2014. Most applications were from Syrians and Iraqis (27,3% and 22% respectively), who accounted for only 9% and 1% respectively in 2014. Moreover, both the rate of status recognition (refugee and subsidiary protection status) and of return decision increased. In 2015, Luxembourg pledged to relocate 557 individuals to Luxembourg in the framework of the EU Council decision to relocate 160.000 international protection applicants from Greece and Italy. Within this framework, 114 refugees have been relocated from Greece and 20 from Italy up until mid-August 2016. Furthermore, 46 refugees were resettled from Turkey in 2015, followed by 52 further refugees as a result of Luxembourg’s pledge to resettle 194 refugees from Turkey in the context of the EU-Turkey agreement of March 2016. Additionally, 44 Syrians were welcomed in 2015 following a request for assistance by German authorities. Faced with the increased inflow of applicants for international protection, an emergency reception plan was developed in 2015. The plan included the establishment of first-instance reception centres and the strengthening of the capacity in human resources of both the Luxembourg Reception and Integration Agency (OLAI) and the Directorate of Immigration, which is under the authority of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. The OLAI also strengthened the collaboration with stakeholders at inter-ministerial and local levels. A strong focus has also been put on integration, where major developments include the setting up of integration projects by the municipalities in the context of the ‘Communal Integration Plan’ project and the creation of Luxembourg’s Centre for Integration and Cohesion (LISKO), a service supporting the beneficiaries of international protection in their process of integration in Luxembourgish society. Over the course of 2015 and 2016, Luxembourg continued to transpose and implement several EU directives. The law of 18th December 2015 on the reception of applicants for international protection and temporary protection transposes Directive 2013/33/EU (re-cast reception conditions) into national law. The law of 18th December 2015 on international protection and temporary protection transposed Directive 2013/32/EU (re-cast procedure), establishing the procedures for granting and withdrawing international and subsidiary protection and the standardisation of the content of this protection. The bill implementing Directive 2013/55/EU on the recognition of professional qualifications was introduced into parliament in 2015 and the bill implementing Directive 2014/36/EU on seasonal workers and Directive 2014/66/EU on intra-corporate transferees and investors’ residence permits was introduced in 2016. Regarding the transposition of the Blue Card Directive, a Government Decree was issued on 22nd May 2015 establishing the professions to which the lower salary threshold for hiring highly qualified workers applies. On the national level, a number of legislative changes address some of the challenges set by Luxembourg’s heterogeneity. The bill no. 6410 on youth, introduced into parliament on 6th February 2015, gives cross-border workers access to the care service voucher system which was previously only available to Luxembourgish residents. Bill no. 6893 on the recognition of qualifications was introduced in parliament in October 2015. At the referendum of 7th June 2015, the proposal to extend the right to vote of non-Luxembourgish residents was rejected by a large majority, who argued in favour of the acquisition of nationality as the more appropriate way to acquire the right to vote. Consequently, the government took steps towards reforming the law on nationality in order to soften the requirements for acquisition of nationality, and in this way enable the broadening of participation in elections. Bill no. 6977 on nationality was introduced in parliament on 24th March 2016. It includes the reduction of the required duration of residency from seven to five years and the reintroduction of procedure of option in cases of close links with Luxembourg. The level of fluency in Luxembourgish required has become a central focus of the debate on the bill on nationality, some fearing that linguistic requirements would become an obstacle to foreigners’ acquisition of nationality, others underlining the command of the language as a central factor in integration and thus also in the acquisition of nationality.   [less ▲]

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See detailGestaltung von Jugendpolitik als transversale Kooperation
Residori, Caroline UL; Reichert, Claudine; Biewers, Sandra UL et al

Report (2015)

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See detailINTERNATIONAL MIGRATION IN LUXEMBOURG: Continuous Reporting System on Migration OECD - Luxembourg
Nienaber, Birte UL; Dionisio, Linda UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL et al

Report (2015)

Migration has always played an important role in Luxembourg’s history. In 2014 and 2015, due to the refugee crisis, migration became the focus of the economic, social and political debates, in particular ... [more ▼]

Migration has always played an important role in Luxembourg’s history. In 2014 and 2015, due to the refugee crisis, migration became the focus of the economic, social and political debates, in particular during Luxembourg’s Presidency of the Council of the European Union. As a country that is a founding Member of the European Union and located at the centre of the EU, Luxembourg has a strong attraction for EU citizens and this - in turn - has a direct incidence on the demographic composition of the country and the workforce. Luxembourg’s demographic composition reflects its migratory diversity. In 2014, the net migration balance was positive having increased by 6.8% in comparison to 2013. As such, the country’s rising population numbers were mainly attributed to the immigration of individuals coming from EU Member States and other European countries. These numbers include European Union (EU), European economic area (EEA) citizens and third-country nationals from non-EU European countries. The country’s diversity is equally reflected in its labour market which heavily relies on its foreign workforce. In fact, Luxembourgish citizens represented 31% of the workforce in 2014, while EU citizens reached 65% and third-country nationals only 4%. Cross border workers also represented a very important part of the Luxembourgish workforce with 44.4 %. Due to the refugee crisis, the number of international protection applicants increased between 2013 and 2014. As a consequence, the recognition rate of the status increased as well. On the other hand, the number of returns continued to decrease. In order to respond to the crisis in an adequate manner, additional funds and staff for the Directorate of Immigration and the Luxembourg Reception and Integration Agency were allocated. Given the magnitude of the migration crisis and the pressure on external border Member States, the EU Council took the decision to relocate 160.000 international protection applicants (European relocation scheme) who are currently in Greece and in Italy. In order to implement this decision, Luxembourg agreed to welcome 527 international protection applicants. The first group of 30 relocated individuals from Greece arrived in Luxembourg on 4 November 2015. During 2014, Luxembourg implemented several EU directives. Directive 2011/36/EU of 5 April 2011 on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings was implemented by the Law of 9 April 2014, which reinforced the rights of victims of trafficking in human beings by criminalising begging and the trafficking of children. Extensive work was undertaken to transpose Directives 2012/32/EU and 2012/33/EU of the Common European Asylum System. Two draft bills are currently within the last stages of the legislative procedure and their implementation is set to take place in 2015, after several amendments were brought to the draft bills at the end of September and October 2015. On the national level, recent legislative changes and reforms answer to several aims, ranging from attracting certain categories of migrants to strengthening the support provided to unaccompanied minors. The creation of a new authorisation of stay for investors and the modification of certain authorisations of stay to adapt them for business managers are currently under discussion by an inter-ministerial working group, which is preparing two draft bills on these issues. [less ▲]

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See detailBuilding Strategic Cooperation: The Implementation of Cross-Sectoral Youth Policy in Luxembourg - Findings from an Evaluation Study
Residori, Caroline UL; Reichert, Claudine; Biewers, Sandra UL et al

Report (2015)

This report summarises the main findings of the evaluation of the Luxemburgish Youth Pact for an international audience and focuses on the implementation of a cross‐sectoral youth policy and cross ... [more ▼]

This report summarises the main findings of the evaluation of the Luxemburgish Youth Pact for an international audience and focuses on the implementation of a cross‐sectoral youth policy and cross-sectoral collaboration. [less ▲]

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See detailThe memory-hard Argon2 password hash function
Biryukov, Alex UL; Khovratovich, Dmitry UL; Dinu, Dumitru-Daniel UL et al

Report (2015)

This document describes the Argon2 memory-hard function for password hashing and other applications. We provide a implementer oriented description together with sample code and test vectors. The purpose ... [more ▼]

This document describes the Argon2 memory-hard function for password hashing and other applications. We provide a implementer oriented description together with sample code and test vectors. The purpose is to simplify adoption of Argon2 for Internet protocols. [less ▲]

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See detailLean Model-Driven Development through Model-Interpretation: the CPAL design flow
Navet, Nicolas UL; Fejoz, Loïc; Havet, Lionel et al

Report (2015)

We introduce a novel Model-Driven Development (MDD) flow which aims at more simplicity, more intuitive programming, quicker turnaround time and real-time predictability by leveraging the use of model ... [more ▼]

We introduce a novel Model-Driven Development (MDD) flow which aims at more simplicity, more intuitive programming, quicker turnaround time and real-time predictability by leveraging the use of model-interpretation and providing the language abstractions needed to argue about the timing correctness on a high-level. The MDD flow is built around a language called Cyber-Physical Action Language (CPAL). CPAL serves to describe both the functional behaviour of activities (i.e., the code of the function itself) as well as the functional architecture of the system (i.e., the set of functions, how they are activated, and the data flows among the functions). CPAL is meant to support two use-cases. Firstly, CPAL is a development and design space exploration environment for CPS with main features being the formal description, the editing, graphical representation and simulation of CPS models. Secondly, CPAL is a real-time execution platform. The vision behind CPAL is that a model is executed and verified in simulation mode on a workstation and the same model can be later run on an embedded board with a timing-equivalent run-time time behaviour. [less ▲]

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See detailIsogeometric boundary element methods for three dimensional fatigue crack growth
Peng, Xuan; Atroshchenko, Elena; Kerfriden, Pierre et al

Report (2015)

The isogeometric boundary element method (IGABEM) based on NURBS is adopted to model fracture problem in 3D. The NURBS basis functions are used in both crack representation and physical quantity ... [more ▼]

The isogeometric boundary element method (IGABEM) based on NURBS is adopted to model fracture problem in 3D. The NURBS basis functions are used in both crack representation and physical quantity approximation. A stable quadrature scheme for singular integration is proposed to enhance the robustness of the method in dealing with highly distorted element. The convergence study in crack opening displacement is performed for penny-shaped crack and elliptical crack. Two ways to extract stress intensity factors (SIFs), the contour $M$ integral and virtual crack closure integral, are implemented based on the framework of dual integral equations. An algorithm is outlined and validated to be stable for fatigue crack growth, thanks to the smoothness not only in crack geometry but also in stress/SIFs solution brought by IGABEM. [less ▲]

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See detailÉléments pour une évaluation de la réforme de la formation professionnelle : les principales critiques
Meyers, Raymond UL; Speltz, Fernand; Houssemand, Claude UL

Report (2015)

Une importante réforme de la formation professionnelle initiale est en cours au Luxembourg depuis 2008. Elle consiste en l'introduction systématique d'un enseignement par compétences pour l'ensemble des ... [more ▼]

Une importante réforme de la formation professionnelle initiale est en cours au Luxembourg depuis 2008. Elle consiste en l'introduction systématique d'un enseignement par compétences pour l'ensemble des 120 métiers et en la mise en œuvre des formations sous une forme modulaire et flexible. Ainsi, les principales modifications par rapport à l’ancien modèle sont la substitution des notations chiffrées de savoirs par des évaluations qualitatives de compétences, et les rattrapages à la carte des modules non réussis par l'élève jusqu'à réussite de ceux-ci, dans le cadre de la limite temporelle légale. Cette nouvelle procédure a buté sur un nombre important de difficultés, critiques et résistances. Une « réforme de la réforme » a été entreprise depuis 2014, aboutissant en février 2015 au dépôt d'un nouveau projet de loi (n° 6774) visant à réviser l'ancienne. Afin de préparer et d'accompagner cette révision et les discussions autour de ce travail législatif, l’Institut LifeLong Learning and Guidance (LLLG) de l’Université du Luxembourg a été chargé par le Service de la formation professionnelle (SFP) du ministère de l'Education nationale, de l’Enfance et de la Jeunesse (MENJE), de réaliser une étude qualitative d'évaluation de la formation professionnelle telle qu'elle se présente actuellement. Le présent document reprend certaines conclusions de cette étude. Il est à destination des commanditaires de celle-ci, mais également de la commission de l'Education nationale, de l'Enfance et de la Jeunesse de la Chambre des députés. [less ▲]

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See detailEcho iTEO. Co-languaging, collaborating, co-constructing
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Gretsch, Gérard

Report (2015)

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See detailEffective lifelong learning strategies and value creation at the enterprise level: Thematic report
Brandi, Ulrik; Iannone, Rosa Lisa UL

Report (2015)

This report describes and maps out effective lifelong learning strategies as they are employed at an enterprise level, including an analysis of how such strategies influence enterprises’ learning capacity ... [more ▼]

This report describes and maps out effective lifelong learning strategies as they are employed at an enterprise level, including an analysis of how such strategies influence enterprises’ learning capacity in their strive towards value creation and high performance. The empirical data triangulates three sources: 1) past empirical and theoretical work (1990-2012); 2) LLLight’in’Europe’s (FP7) empirical data; 3) 2009 and 2013 European Company Survey results. A key conjecture for the empirical analysis and conceptual model is that the ways in which different kinds of learning opportunities, understood as human resource practices (HRPs), are enacted in an enterprise is linked to available arrangements of specific systems, structures, values, processes and resources, mediated by learning. Similarities and differences in these factors create arrays of learning opportunities and potentials for attracting, sustaining and developing competences. The research and analytical synthesis address three interrelated areas of lifelong learning in enterprises, identified as imperatives in high-performance work systems: skills development; learning systems and incentives; and work design and the organisation of work. [less ▲]

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See detailBIX – Der Bibliotheksindex:
Pausch, Marie-Pierre UL; Park, Beth Anne UL; Ourth, Annette UL

Report (2015)

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See detailTowards more secure and usable cloud storage for E-Health
Ghatpande, Sankalp; Gheorghe, Gabriela UL

Report (2015)

Secure storage for medical data when using cloud systems is a problem of high importance to healthcare institutions and cloud providers as well. This report investigates how safe is the storage provided ... [more ▼]

Secure storage for medical data when using cloud systems is a problem of high importance to healthcare institutions and cloud providers as well. This report investigates how safe is the storage provided by state of the art tools, discusses their limitations and proposes some solutions and techniques to improve confidentiality when storing medical data remotely. [less ▲]

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See detailHarvesting Fix Hints in the History of Bugs
Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL

Report (2015)

In software development, fixing bugs is an im- portant task that is time consuming and cost-sensitive. While many approaches have been proposed to automatically detect and patch software code, the ... [more ▼]

In software development, fixing bugs is an im- portant task that is time consuming and cost-sensitive. While many approaches have been proposed to automatically detect and patch software code, the strategies are limited to a set of identified bugs that were thoroughly studied to define their properties. They thus manage to cover a niche of faults such as infinite loops. We build on the assumption that bugs, and the associated user bug reports, are repetitive and propose a new approach of fix recommendations based on the history of bugs and their associated fixes. In our approach, once a bug is reported, it is automatically compared to all previously fixed bugs using information retrieval techniques and machine learning classification. Based on this comparison, we recommend top-k fix actions, identified from past fix examples, that may be suitable as hints for software developers to address the new bug [less ▲]

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See detailBuilding relationships between school, family and community to enhance students' school persistence and avoid Early School Leaving (ESL)
Poncelet, Débora UL; Billa, Jean; Schürnbrand, Carmen et al

Report (2015)

Dropout is a multidimensional phenomenon, resulting from a combination of personal, family and school factors that interact with each other. The combination of risk factors (or protective factors) is an ... [more ▼]

Dropout is a multidimensional phenomenon, resulting from a combination of personal, family and school factors that interact with each other. The combination of risk factors (or protective factors) is an event or a condition that increase (or reduce) the likelihood of an individual experience of emotional or behavioural problems, that may contribute to school dropout. The decision to stop school education is the result of a long evolutionary process that is characterized by an accumulation of frustrations, often induced by academic failures and difficult relationships with peers, teachers, and parents. Through involvement in educational aspects, families especially play an important role in student success and affect conditions that might lead to dropping out: positive impact on school performance, enhancing motivation and school involvement, improving well-being and school behaviours, building a constructive and efficient relationship between school and family could be an efficient way to avoid school dropout. In this session, our exchanges and reflections aim at comparing and analyzing issues, experiences, ideas, and questions from different interventions of European representatives. Through these different contributions, we try to highlight concrete policies for UE countries regarding the connections that we can do between school dropout and relationships between school, family and community. [less ▲]

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See detailBilateral comparison between the FG5X-216 and FG5-242
Francis, Olivier UL; Ullrich, Christian

Report (2015)

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See detailRelative gravity measurements in Ilulissat in July 2013
Francis, Olivier UL

Report (2015)

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See detailGroup interest and subsidiary governance in Luxembourg
Conac, Pierre-Henri UL

Report (2015)

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See detailA Study of Potential Component Leaks in Android Apps
Li, Li UL; Allix, Kevin UL; Li, Daoyuan UL et al

Report (2015)

We discuss the capability of a new feature set for malware detection based on potential component leaks (PCLs). PCLs are defined as sensitive data-flows that involve Android inter-component communications ... [more ▼]

We discuss the capability of a new feature set for malware detection based on potential component leaks (PCLs). PCLs are defined as sensitive data-flows that involve Android inter-component communications. We show that PCLs are common in Android apps and that malicious applications indeed manipulate significantly more PCLs than benign apps. Then, we evaluate a machine learning-based approach relying on PCLs. Experimental validation show high performance with 95% precision for identifying malware, demonstrating that PCLs can be used for discriminating malicious apps from benign apps. By further investigating the generalization ability of this feature set, we highlight an issue often overlooked in the Android malware detection community: Qualitative aspects of training datasets have a strong impact on a malware detector’s performance. Furthermore, this impact cannot be overcome by simply increasing the Quantity of training material. [less ▲]

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See detailLes langues dans les offres d'emploi au Luxembourg (1984-2014)
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Fehlen, Fernand UL

Report (2015)

Cette étude propose une analyse des demandes linguistiques dans les offres d’emploi au Luxembourg dans deux médias différents : 1) À partir d’un échantillon d’offres du Luxemburger Wort portant sur la ... [more ▼]

Cette étude propose une analyse des demandes linguistiques dans les offres d’emploi au Luxembourg dans deux médias différents : 1) À partir d’un échantillon d’offres du Luxemburger Wort portant sur la période 1984-2014, elle décrit l’évolution des compétences linguistiques exigées ou souhaitées sur le marché du travail du Luxembourg. 2) Pour tenir compte de l’importance croissante des recrutements en ligne, une deuxième étude porte sur un corpus d’offres publiées sur le site Internet Jobs.lu. La prise en compte de ces deux sources permet de montrer une segmentation linguistique entre les différentes branches d’activité et une augmentation des demandes langagières explicites au fil des 30 dernières années. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermining labour shortages and the need for labour migration from third countries in the EU
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Becker, Fabienne UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2015)

Since almost 150 years, Luxembourg depends on two kinds of migration, qualified and non-qualified, in order to deal with the workforce needs of its economy. Compared to the other EU Member States ... [more ▼]

Since almost 150 years, Luxembourg depends on two kinds of migration, qualified and non-qualified, in order to deal with the workforce needs of its economy. Compared to the other EU Member States, Luxembourg is the country with the largest proportion of foreigners; however, this foreign population is mainly composed of EU citizens. Due to its size and geographic position, Luxembourg was able to have access to a very particular form of economic migration: cross-border workers. Globalisation has also played a decisive role in the development of economic migration for the Luxembourgish labour market. The financial centre was obliged to become highly specialised in order to remain competitive in regards to other financial centres and to maintain its volume of business. In order to maintain its competitive advantage, Luxembourg needs highly skilled personnel, which the country has found, up until now, within the Greater Region. This reality is even more pronounced with regards to the labour market: the number of actives (salaried and non-salaried) on 31 March 2014 shows that Luxembourgish nationals represented only 31%, EU citizens 65% and third-country nationals only 4%. Cross-border workers from Belgium, France and Germany represented 42% of the workforce and the resident migrant population (EU citizens and third-country nationals) 28%. Cross-border workers, which consist of skilled and highly skilled labour are substantially attracted for two reasons: 1) more competitive salaries on the Luxemburgish labour market ; and 2) a geographical location which allows the commuting of cross-border workers. The attitude of the successive governments was to adapt immigration to the economic needs of the country. The government policy intends to focus on attracting highly added value activities focussed on new technologies (biomedicine and information as well as communication technologies – focusing on IT security), logistics and research. However, being one of the smallest countries in the European Union, Luxembourg has limited human resources to guarantee the growth not only of the financial sector but also of the new technologies sectors. The government introduced the highly qualified worker residence permit in the bill on free movement of persons and immigration approved by law of 29 August 2008 almost a year before of the enactment of the Blue Card Directive to facilitate the entry of third-country national highly qualified workers. However, this reform was isolated and incomplete and took place without making a real evaluation of the workforce demand of the different sectors of the economy. Even though until now Luxembourg has been relying on the workforce from the Greater Region, for some socio-economic and political stakeholders, highly qualified workforces began to become scarce in the Greater region. In addition to the cross-border workers, the lifting of restrictions to access all the sectors of the labour market for citizens of the new Member States (EU-8) can be considered as a mitigating factor for the need to make an evaluation of the workforce demand, because the high salaries paid in Luxembourg became a real pull factor for the highly qualified workers. As a consequence, the political authorities did not foresee a systematic plan on how to address labour shortages in specific sectors of the economy, because there has not been a significant need for doing so. [less ▲]

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See detailModel-Driven Security based on A Unified System of Security Design Patterns
Nguyen, Phu Hong UL

Report (2015)

Model-Driven Security (MDS) for secure systems development still has limitations to be more applicable in practice. A recent systematic review of MDS shows that current MDS approaches have not dealt with ... [more ▼]

Model-Driven Security (MDS) for secure systems development still has limitations to be more applicable in practice. A recent systematic review of MDS shows that current MDS approaches have not dealt with multiple security concerns system- atically. Besides, catalogs of security patterns which can address multiple security concerns have not been applied efficiently. This paper presents an MDS approach based on a unified System of Security design Patterns (SoSPa). In SoSPa, security design patterns are collected, specified as reusable aspect models to form a coherent system of them that guides developers in systematically addressing multiple security concerns. SoSPa consists of not only interrelated security design patterns but also a refinement process towards their application. We applied SoSPa to design the security of crisis management systems. The result shows that multiple security concerns in the case study have been addressed by systematically integrating different security solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnostic des Besoins et des Demandes Spécifiques des Bénéficiaires de Pays Tiers du Contrat d’Accueil et d’Intégration
Baumann, Michèle UL; Bucki, Barbara; Karathanasi, Chrysoula UL et al

Report (2015)

Les buts du projet ont été : • Obtenir une photographie des profils sociodémographiques et économiques des 2547 signataires du CAI dont 1130 sont issus de pays tiers • Etablir un diagnostic quantitatif et ... [more ▼]

Les buts du projet ont été : • Obtenir une photographie des profils sociodémographiques et économiques des 2547 signataires du CAI dont 1130 sont issus de pays tiers • Etablir un diagnostic quantitatif et qualitatif de leurs besoins spécifiques concernant le dispositif du CAI et ses prestations, de ses retombées sur l’intégration et la qualité de vie. Les objectifs du projet • Décrire le profil socioéconomique des signataires de PT au regard de celui des signataires issus de l’UE et des données sur les étrangers du recensement 2011 ainsi que leur participation aux prestations du dispositif du CAI ; • Analyser le profil socioéconomique des bénéficiaires ayant répondu au questionnaire de PT vs. EU ainsi que celui des volontaires de PT ayant participé aux consultations collectives ; • Examiner les difficultés rencontrées par les bénéficiaires PT dans leur intégration ainsi que leurs besoins et leurs demandes par rapport aux prestations existantes ; • Identifier les retombées du dispositif du CAI sur leur participation à la vie sociale, leur qualité de vie (emploi, formation, santé…) et leur utilisation des services ; • Déterminer les améliorations possibles qui pourraient renforcer le processus du dispositif du CAI afin de soutenir leur intégration. Méthode. Parmi les 452 bénéficiaires du Contrat d'Accueil et d'Intégartion, 233 personnes sont issues de Pays Tiers et ont répondu à un questionnaire. Parmi eux, 50 personnes ont été volontaires pour participer à l’une des 11 consultations collectives animées en français, anglais, espagnol, serbo-croate et chinois. [less ▲]

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