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See detailWhy are difficult figural matrices hard to solve? The role of selective encoding and working memory capacity
Krieger, Florian UL; Zimmer, Hubert D.; Greiff, Samuel UL et al

in Intelligence (2019), 72

It is well documented that figural matrices tests are harder to solve when multiple rules need to be induced because multiple rules are traditionally associated with a greater demand for dynamically ... [more ▼]

It is well documented that figural matrices tests are harder to solve when multiple rules need to be induced because multiple rules are traditionally associated with a greater demand for dynamically managed sub-goals (goal management), which requires more working memory capacity (WMC). The current research addresses the necessity to apply selective encoding as a requirement that goes beyond the ability to manage goals when solving figural matrices. In the first study (N = 38), we found that selective encoding demands are present in items with multiple rules in addition to goal management demands. Furthermore, eye movement data indicated that rule induction was hampered when selective encoding demands were present. The second study (N = 127) de-monstrated that individuals' ability to filter relevant features in working memory was positively related to figural matrices items with selective encoding demands. Moreover, there was no evidence that other sources of WMC are related to goal management in figural matrices. Hence, this study provides preliminary evidence that fil-tering of relevant information in working memory is critical for solving figural matrices with multiple rules and challenges the view that goal management is the only driver of the relationship between WMC and performance in solving figural matrices with multiple rules. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy are Higher Education Participation Rates in Germany so Low? Institutional Barriers to Higher Education Expansion
Powell, Justin J W UL; Solga, Heike

in Journal of Education & Work (2011), 24(1), 49-68

Countries around the world have witnessed educational expansion at all levels, leading to the massification of tertiary education and training. Tertiary education has become a major factor of economic ... [more ▼]

Countries around the world have witnessed educational expansion at all levels, leading to the massification of tertiary education and training. Tertiary education has become a major factor of economic competitiveness in an increasingly science‐based global economy and a key response to shifts in national labour markets. Within the EU, the reform of skill formation systems has been advanced by the Lisbon strategy, with the Bologna and Copenhagen processes in higher education (HE) and vocational education and training (VET) articulating and diffusing overarching goals in European skill formation. If European benchmarks call for at least 40% of all 30‐ to 34‐year‐olds to hold a tertiary‐level certificate, Germany exhibits a relatively low proportion of each cohort entering HE and attaining that qualification level (28%). We analyse this ‘German exceptionalism’, locating a range of factors in the educational system: the institutional logic of segregation, the structure of secondary schooling, the division or schism between the organisational fields of VET and HE, and limited permeability throughout. Regardless of isomorphic pressures that led Germany to quickly implement undergraduate bachelor's (BA) and graduate master's (MA) courses of study, these factors limit the extent of HE expansion visible among other European countries. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy are kesterite solar cells not 20% efficient?
Siebentritt, Susanne UL

in Thin Solid Films (2013)

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See detailWhy are you Silent? - Towards Responsiveness in Chatbots
Danilava, Sviatlana UL; Busemann, Stephan; Schommer, Christoph UL et al

in Avec le Temps! Time, Tempo, and Turns in Human-Computer Interaction". Workshop at CHI 2013, Paris, France (2013)

In this position paper we consider temporal phenomena in interaction with text-based conversational agents. In particular, we focus on two dimensions of time in instant messaging dialogues: responsiveness ... [more ▼]

In this position paper we consider temporal phenomena in interaction with text-based conversational agents. In particular, we focus on two dimensions of time in instant messaging dialogues: responsiveness as a measure for interaction placed in time, and interaction management performed by interaction participants caused by partner's exceeding of the maximum expected responsiveness. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy Be Afraid of Identity?
Parent, Xavier UL

in Logic Programs, Norms and Action (2012)

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See detailWhy Challenge the Ivory Tower? New Evidence on the Basicness of Academic Patents
Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin UL; Schneider, Cedric

in Kyklos : internationale Zeitschrift für Sozialwissenschaften (2009)

While often presumed in academic literature and policy discussions there is little empirical evidence showing that academic patents protectmore basic inventions than corporate patents. This study provides ... [more ▼]

While often presumed in academic literature and policy discussions there is little empirical evidence showing that academic patents protectmore basic inventions than corporate patents. This study provides new evidence on the basicness of academic patents using German professor patents linked to patent opposition data from the European Patent Office (EPO). Patent oppositions are the most important mechanism by which the validity of patents filed at the EPO can be challenged. Controlling for patent value, asymmetric information and diverging expectations between the opposition parties, the likelihood of a potentially litigious situation and the relative costs of opposition versus settlement, we find that academic patents are opposed less frequently than a control group of corporate patents.This suggests that academic patents cover rather basic inventions with a low immediate commercial value not threatening current returns of potential plaintiffs. The effect is weaker for academic patents filed in collaboration with the business sector, which suggests that those patents are evaluated as more applied by owners of potentially rival technologies. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy Dewey now?
Biesta, Gert UL

in Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Historiographie (2001), 7(2), 71-75

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See detailWhy do central bank intervene secretly? Preliminary evidence from the BoJ
Beine, Michel UL; Bernal, Oscar

in Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions & Money (2006), 17(3), 291-306

This paper empirically investigates the main determinants of secret interventions in the foreign exchange (FX) market. Using the recent experience of the Bank of Japan, we estimate a model that explains ... [more ▼]

This paper empirically investigates the main determinants of secret interventions in the foreign exchange (FX) market. Using the recent experience of the Bank of Japan, we estimate a model that explains the share of secret to reported interventions in the FX market. Two sets of determinants are clearly identified: the first is related to the probability of detection of the central bank orders by market participants; the second to the central bank’s internal decision to opt for secrecy. Our estimations support the arguments of current microstructure theories that rationalize the use of secret interventions. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy do children differ in motivation to learn: Insights from over 13,000 twins from 6 countries.
Kovas, Y.; Garon-Carrier, G.; Boivin, M. et al

in Personality and Individual Differences (2015), 80

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See detailWhy do String Players Perform Easier per Memory than Wind Music Players? – Testing Instrumentalist Students’ Attention Levels During Music Reading
Buzás, Zsuzsanna; Sagrillo, Damien UL

in Molnár, Edit Katalin; Dancs, Katinka (Eds.) 17thConference on Educational Assessment (2019, April 13)

Developing music reading skills is considered a central part of music education. The knowledge of musical notation is essential to participate in orchestras or in choral ensembles. In musical practice ... [more ▼]

Developing music reading skills is considered a central part of music education. The knowledge of musical notation is essential to participate in orchestras or in choral ensembles. In musical practice, pianists who play as soloists with an orchestra do notneed written support as opposed to brass instrument soloists. Until now, no research has been conducted to discoverthe reasons why pianists and string players play easier by heart than brass instrument players.Music related activities involve numerous psychological processes, including perception and rapid processing of audio stimuli, attention and auditory, sensory and visual memory activation. Students with working memory impairments have difficulties with concentration as well as with organizing and monitoring the quality of their own work (Alloway et al., 2009).If the attention level is normal or high, the student is in an appropriate state for learning. It has been shown that participants with high working memory capacity perform significantly better on a variety of attention tasks (Fougnie, 2008).Attention supports the development of emerging reading skills by helping students regulate the cognitive demands inherently part of learning (Sáez et al., 2011).Thisstudy aims to test instrumentalist students’ attention and mediation levels during music reading by means of NeuroSky’s MindWave EEG device that translates brainwaves into digital information and beams it wirelessly to acomputer. We investigated 22right-handed wind instrumentalists, 12-14 years of age, and compared them with 21 violin players,matched for age and grade level. Students were asked to play an eight-bar composition bySzilvay. We analyzed attention and mediation levels, as well as alpha, beta and gamma band oscillatory responses to the musical piece during reading. The results of the data analysis were evaluated using e-Sense Metric. According to this metric, attention and meditation data arescaled between 1 and 100. The findings ofthe study revealed that the average attention level of the violin players was slightly highat61.53;while that of the wind players was 39.98, that is,slightly low. A significant difference was found between the averages of attention levelsbetween the string and the wind players (t=2.656, p=.026).With the use of EEG, the appearance of fatiguecan be detectedand the concentration levelscan be differentiatedfor the same exercise for different pupils. The results help us to improve instructionalmethods, and can also help us to reveal the processesof attention and mediation duringthe students’ music reading. Further research can involve the replication of the studywith pianists,comparing them with string players and wind music players. In an even more refined desing, a replication study could be carried out to compare pianists and brass instrument players. These further studies can serve as a basis for developing training programs of music reading comprehension for different instrumentalists. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy do superstars exist? Talent, fame and power
Tampieri, Alessandro UL

in Q. A.: Rivista dell'associazione Rossi-Doria (2011)

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See detailWhy do temporal generalization gradients change when people make decisions as quickly as possible?
Klapproth, Florian UL; Wearden, John H.

in Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology (2011), 64(8), 1646-1664

Three experiments investigated temporal generalization performance under conditions in which participants were instructed to make their decisions as quickly as possible (speed), or were allowed to take ... [more ▼]

Three experiments investigated temporal generalization performance under conditions in which participants were instructed to make their decisions as quickly as possible (speed), or were allowed to take their time (accuracy). A previous study (Klapproth & Müller, 2008) had shown that under speeded conditions people were more likely to confuse durations shorter than the standard with the standard than in the accuracy conditions, and a possible explanation of this result is that longer stimulus durations are "truncated" (i.e., people make a judgement about them before they have terminated, thereby shortening their effective duration) and that these truncated durations affect the standard used for the task. Experiment 1 investigated performance under speed and accuracy conditions when comparison durations were close to the standard or further away. No performance difference was found as a function of stimulus spacing, even though responses occurred on average before the longest durations had terminated, but this lack of effect was attributed to "task difficulty" effects changing decision thresholds. In Experiment 2, the standard duration was either the longest or the shortest duration in the comparison set, and differences between speed and accuracy groups occurred only when the comparisons were longer than the standard, supporting the "truncation" hypothesis. A third experiment showed that differences between speed and accuracy groups only occurred if some memory of the standard that was valid for more than one trial was used. In general, the results suggest that the generalization gradient shifts in speeded conditions occur because of truncation of longer comparison durations, which influences the effective standard used for the task. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy do we make Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells non-stoichiometric?
Siebentritt, Susanne UL; Gütay, Levent UL; Regesch, David UL et al

in Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells (2013)

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See detailWhy do you play World of Warcraft? An in-depth exploration of self-reported motivations to play online and in-game behaviours in the virtual world of Azeroth
Billieux, Joël UL; Van Der Linden, M.; Achab, S. et al

in Computers in Human Behavior (2013), 29(1), 103-109

Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are video games in which players create an avatar that evolves and interacts with other avatars in a persistent virtual world. Motivations to play ... [more ▼]

Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are video games in which players create an avatar that evolves and interacts with other avatars in a persistent virtual world. Motivations to play MMORPGs are heterogeneous (e.g. achievement, socialisation, immersion in virtual worlds). This study investigates in detail the relationships between self-reported motives and actual in-game behaviours. We recruited a sample of 690 World of Warcraft players (the most popular MMORPG) who agreed to have their avatar monitored for 8 months. Participants completed an initial online survey about their motives to play. Their actual in-game behaviours were measured through the game's official database (the Armory website). Results showed specific associations between motives and in-game behaviours. Moreover, longitudinal analyses revealed that teamwork- and competition-oriented motives are the most accurate predictors of fast progression in the game. In addition, although specific associations exist between problematic use and certain motives (e.g. advancement, escapism), longitudinal analyses showed that high involvement in the game is not necessarily associated with a negative impact upon daily living. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy does multi-situated ethnography develop new competences for sociological research on the poorest and most excluded populations' health as well as for evidence-based health promotion interventions?
Lurbe-Puerto, Katia UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in European Society for Health and Medical Sociology (2010)

When extremely poor and excluded populations are concerned, Multi-Situated Ethnography (MSE) represents a valuable research design for health needs and resources diagnosis* and for the improvement of ... [more ▼]

When extremely poor and excluded populations are concerned, Multi-Situated Ethnography (MSE) represents a valuable research design for health needs and resources diagnosis* and for the improvement of health promotion programmes. By focusing on the results of our 2-years community-based participatory study on prevention amongst Roma populations living in France**, we will assess the potentials of ethnography-based research for both scientific production and health promotion interventions. Methods/actions. A MSE has been carried in three distinct scenarios, selected because of the different socio-cultural integration levels and life conditions of the Roma families. There are: 1) the Forest of Mery-sur-Oise, a shanty town where around twenty Roma families live, 2) the collective emergency housing in the old headquarters in Saint-Maur-des-Fossé, and 3) S.A.N. de Sénart, a conglomeration of towns which an integration plan of Roma people was launched in. This fieldwork has produced scientific data on the healthcare provision and the social accompaniment realised by professionals of the health, social and administrative sectors as well as on Roma’s health promotion practices. A reflexive evaluation design was undertaken through the conduction of an expert panel involving 3 sociologists and 3 social workers, meeting each month. Results. The MSE allowed building up comparative relations between health practices and socio-economic and geo-political factors amongst “hermetical populations” when they asked to share information on their life with outsiders. Simultaneously, the data analysis allowed considering: universal similarities, cultural differences and individual singularities. The increased of the methodological procedures as it helped avoid falling into stigma reification of groups already highly racially discriminated. Its participatory dimension helped document and share learning across contexts, providing a renewed source of dynamism amongst professionals dealing with sensitive fields and very difficult to access. Because of the sensitivity brought by its in-depth comprehensive-based approach, it moved closer professionals to their Roma beneficiaries, even leading to cases of conflict resolution between both actors. Conclusion. The acquisition of the required skills to carry out a social and health intervention based on a community-based participatory diagnostic of needs and resources and, on an evaluative follow-up of the actions undertaken within the intervention scenario is a major asset for the elaboration and management of individual or community-dimensioned professional projects. MSE needs to be revisited and revalued as it comprises useful a set of competences to give informed guidance by supplying decision-makers and professionals, with sound and comprehensive analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy Energy Matters? Profiling Energy Consumption of Mobile Crowdsensing Data Collection Frameworks
Tomasoni, Mattia; Capponi, Andrea UL; Fiandrino, Claudio UL et al

in Pervasive and Mobile Computing (2018)

Mobile Crowdsensing (MCS) has emerged in the last years and has become one of the most prominent paradigms for urban sensing. The citizens actively participate in the sensing process by contributing data ... [more ▼]

Mobile Crowdsensing (MCS) has emerged in the last years and has become one of the most prominent paradigms for urban sensing. The citizens actively participate in the sensing process by contributing data with their mobile devices. To produce data, citizens sustain costs, i.e., the energy consumed for sensing and reporting operations. Hence, devising energy efficient data collection frameworks (DCF) is essential to foster participation. In this work, we investigate from an energy-perspective the performance of different DCFs. Our methodology is as follows: (i) we developed an Android application that implements the DCFs, (ii) we profiled the energy and network performance with a power monitor and Wireshark, (iii) we included the obtained traces into CrowdSenSim simulator for large-scale evaluations in city-wide scenarios such as Luxembourg, Turin and Washington DC. The amount of collected data, energy consumption and fairness are the performance indexes evaluated. The results unveil that DCFs with continuous data reporting are more energy-efficient and fair than DCFs with probabilistic reporting. The latter exhibit high variability of energy consumption, i.e., to produce the same amount of data, the associated energy cost of different users can vary significantly. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy engage with Digital Source Criticism?
Garcia Martin, Cristina; Scagliola, Stefania UL

Poster (2018, September 26)

This poster illustrates the concept of the teaching platform Ranke.2 with lessons on Digital Source Criticism

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See detailWhy is it so hard? And for whom? Obstacles in the intra-EU mobility: Mobility fields in comparison
Kmiotek-Meier, Emilia Alicja UL; Ardic, Tuba; Dabasi-Halász, Zsuzsanna et al

Scientific Conference (2018, March 08)

Detailed reference viewed: 67 (1 UL)