References of "2018"
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See detailGermany, Greece and Poland: The Complicated story of Reparations and their impact on European (dis?) Integration,
Paravantis, Spero UL

in Paravantis, Spero (Ed.) BENELUX, Europe and the Cold War: Asymmetrical cold war power relations in the Integration process of Europe (2018)

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See detailThe 90s as a turning decade for Internet and the Web
Schafer, Valerie UL; Thierry, Benjamin

in Internet Histories: Digital Technology, Culture and Society (2018), 2(3/4),

This special issue dedicated to the 90s as a turning decade for Internet and the Web highlights the developments and choices – both technical and economic, but also cultural, societal and political – that ... [more ▼]

This special issue dedicated to the 90s as a turning decade for Internet and the Web highlights the developments and choices – both technical and economic, but also cultural, societal and political – that contributed to the massification of the Internet and the discovery of the Web by the general public. [less ▲]

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See detailTranscriptional and epigenetic mechanisms underlying astrocyte identity
Pavlou, Maria Angeliki UL; Grandbarbe, Luc UL; Buckley, Noel et al

in Progress in Neurobiology (2018)

Astrocytes play a significant role in coordinating neural development and provide critical support for the function of the CNS. They possess important adaptation capacities that range from their ... [more ▼]

Astrocytes play a significant role in coordinating neural development and provide critical support for the function of the CNS. They possess important adaptation capacities that range from their transition towards reactive astrocytes to their ability to undergo reprogramming, thereby revealing their potential to retain latent features of neural progenitor cells. We propose that the mechanisms underlying reactive astrogliosis or astrocyte reprogramming provide an opportunity for initiating neuronal regeneration, a process that is notably reduced in the mammalian nervous system throughout evolution. Conversely, this plasticity may also affect normal astrocytic functions resulting in pathologies ranging from neurodevelopmental disorders to neurodegenerative diseases and brain tumors. We postulate that epigenetic mechanisms linking extrinsic cues and intrinsic transcriptional programs are key factors to maintain astrocyte identity and function, and critically, to control the balance of regenerative and degenerative activity. Here, we will review the main evidences supporting this concept. We propose that unravelling the epigenetic and transcriptional mechanisms underlying the acquisition of astrocyte identity and plasticity, as well as understanding how these processes are modulated by the local microenvironment under specific threatening or pathological conditions, may pave the way to new therapeutic avenues for several neurological disorders including neurodegenerative diseases and brain tumors of astrocytic lineage. [less ▲]

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See detailStability of functionalized platform molecules on Au(111)
Jasper-Tönnies, Torben; Poltavskyi, Igor UL; Ulrich, Sandra et al

in Journal of Chemical Physics (2018), 149

Trioxatriangulenium (TOTA) platform molecules were functionalized with methyl, ethyl, ethynyl, propynyl, and hydrogen and sublimated onto Au(111) surfaces. Low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy ... [more ▼]

Trioxatriangulenium (TOTA) platform molecules were functionalized with methyl, ethyl, ethynyl, propynyl, and hydrogen and sublimated onto Au(111) surfaces. Low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy data reveal that >99% of ethyl-TOTA and methyl-TOTA remain intact, whereas 60% of H-TOTA and >99% of propynyl-TOTA and ethynyl-TOTA decompose. The observed tendency toward fragmentation on Au(111) is opposite to the sequence of gas-phase stabilities of the molecules. Although Au(111) is the noblest of all metal surfaces, the binding energies of the decomposition products to Au(111) destabilize the functionalized platforms by 2 to 3.9 eV (190–370 kJ/mol) and even render some of them unstable as revealed by density functional theory calculations. Van der Waals forces are important, as they drive the adsorption of the platform molecules. [less ▲]

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See detailL'euro en quête d'un nouveau souffle
Danescu, Elena UL

Article for general public (2018)

L’euro est l’une des grandes aventures du XXe siècle. Pour la première fois des pays égaux et souverains consentent d’abandonner leurs monnaies nationales - symbole intrinsèque aux États nations - pour ... [more ▼]

L’euro est l’une des grandes aventures du XXe siècle. Pour la première fois des pays égaux et souverains consentent d’abandonner leurs monnaies nationales - symbole intrinsèque aux États nations - pour créer une monnaie unique gérée par une nouvelle institution, une banque centrale à l’échelon de l’Europe. Si l’euro ressemble davantage à un instrument technique pour une meilleure intégration économique, il représente surtout une construction institutionnelle originale et une forte avancée politique, néanmoins incomplète. [less ▲]

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See detailDigital Resources and Tools in Historical Research
Zaagsma, Gerben UL; Wieneke, Lars UL

in Kollmann, Stefanie; Müller, Lars; Reh, Sabine (Eds.) et al Picture archives and the emergence of visual history of education. ISCHE 40 pre-conference workshop. 3rd workshop "Pictura Paedagogica Online: educational knowledge in images (2018, December 21)

One of the characteristic features of modern life is the omnipresence of images - in public life as well as in the private surroundings. At latest with coining the term "Visual history" at the beginning ... [more ▼]

One of the characteristic features of modern life is the omnipresence of images - in public life as well as in the private surroundings. At latest with coining the term "Visual history" at the beginning of the nineteen nineties historical disciplines are dealing with this ever growing pool of pictorial sources. This is also true for educational history - especially when keeping in mind that the use of images in an educational context is common practice since early modern ages. This concerns the presentation practices, the design of didactic visual media and their use in educational practice as well as the illustrated traces of historical educational practice and historical educational knowledge (e.g. photographs of school buildings or educational scenes). There are various digital picture archives to address the research questions of many historical disciplines. These databases, though, differ widely in purpose and design - and of course they cannot serve every scientific demand. According to Gerhard Paul there should be at least four layers of information evaluation when analysing historical images (reality of depiction, genesis, use and impact). Thus, building up a corpus of image sources with sufficient accompanying information can be quite challenging. As major topic the Pre-Conference Workshop will focus on the impact of the discipline on developing and maintaining of a picture archive. (DIPF/Orig.) [less ▲]

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See detailLubrication mechanism design for aircraft landing gear bearings
Heirendt, Laurent UL; Hugh, Hugh H.T.; Wang, Phillip

Patent (2018)

A shock absorber with lubricated bearings for an aircraft landing gear includes a piston that is received in a cylinder, and an upper bearing fixed to the piston that slidably engages an inner surface of ... [more ▼]

A shock absorber with lubricated bearings for an aircraft landing gear includes a piston that is received in a cylinder, and an upper bearing fixed to the piston that slidably engages an inner surface of the cylinder. A lower bearing extends inwardly from a lower portion of the cylinder and engages an outer surface of the piston. The lower bearing has a center axis and defines an annular bearing surface configured to slidably engage the piston outer surface. The annular bearing surface has a first portion that extends circumferentially more than one hundred eighty degrees about the center axis at a constant radius, defining a circular annular segment. A second portion closes the circular annular segment and defines a shallow channel or pocket in the annular bearing surface. In some embodiments the lower bearing further comprises oppositely disposed frustoconical thrust portions. [less ▲]

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See detailHistoire de la gouvernance d'Internet
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2018, December 20)

initialement laboratoire d’une démocratie technique inachevée, la gouvernance de l’Internet pose rapidement la question de l’articulation du rôle des États, des experts techniques, des acteurs économiques ... [more ▼]

initialement laboratoire d’une démocratie technique inachevée, la gouvernance de l’Internet pose rapidement la question de l’articulation du rôle des États, des experts techniques, des acteurs économiques, des groupes impliqués et des usagers en général. Elle implique de penser les continuités et ruptures dans le temps court de l’histoire d’Internet, mais aussi dans la poursuite de luttes plus anciennes pour la maîtrise de l’information et des communications, où les rapports de pouvoir n’ont jamais été absents. [less ▲]

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See detailPreventing and Resolving Conflicts of Jurisdiction in EU Criminal Law
Ligeti, Katalin UL; Robinson, Gavin UL; European Law Institute

Book published by Oxford University Press (2018)

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See detailDialog - traduction française du magazine DIALOG
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Mortini, Simone UL

Article for general public (2018)

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See detailChoice of Forum and Cybercrime
Robinson, Gavin UL

in Ligeti, Katalin; Robinson, Gavin; European Law Institute (Eds.) Preventing and Resolving Conflicts of Jurisdiction in EU Criminal Law (2018)

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See detailThe Role of Implicit Nationality Preference in Speaker Evaluations in the Multilingual Context of Montreal
Lehnert, Tessa Elisabeth UL; Hörstermann, Thomas UL

in Journal of Language and Social Psychology (2018)

Multilingual contexts in cross-border regions are characterized by a high number of inhabitants making use of various languages depending on the context. A language that a person speaks thus cannot be ... [more ▼]

Multilingual contexts in cross-border regions are characterized by a high number of inhabitants making use of various languages depending on the context. A language that a person speaks thus cannot be used as indicator of national group membership, which highlights the need for a distinction. The present study aimed to transfer an adapted model positing language and nationality attitudes as distinct factors of speaker evaluations, both on an explicit and implicit level, to the context of Montreal. Explicit attitudes were assumed to primarily affect explicit speaker evaluations, whereas implicit attitudes were expected to be the primary predictor of implicit speaker evaluations. Results primarily confirmed the distinctness of language and nationality concepts on an implicit attitude level. Moreover, the crucial role of nationality preference on an implicit level was highlighted: Quebecers’ implicit nationality attitudes affected implicit preferences for the Quebec nation suggesting affirmation of model transferability. [less ▲]

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See detailUpcycling polymers: a revolutionary approach to promoting the circular economy
Wolf, Claude UL; Kedziora, Slawomir UL

in Impact (2018), 2018(Number 9), 103-1053

The UPcycling using Additive Manufacturing (UpAM) project seeks to introduce an innovative educational and interactive framework to demonstrate the benefits of upcycling so that any individual can produce ... [more ▼]

The UPcycling using Additive Manufacturing (UpAM) project seeks to introduce an innovative educational and interactive framework to demonstrate the benefits of upcycling so that any individual can produce their own products using recycled raw materials. For years, societies have been aware that the unlimited consumption of products is unavoidably intertwined with the unlimited production of waste. This is exactly why scientists and researchers have been trying to find alternative and meaningful solutions to the Linear Economy model, a model that dictates a specific sequence of events: extracting raw materials, manufacturing products, consuming and discarding these products. Looking beyond that ‘take, make, dispose’ approach, it was in 1989 that the notion of Circular Economy (CE) was first proposed by Pearce and Turner; a concept that is restorative and regenerative and that involves reusing products, repairing, recycling and upcycling. Therefore, the core element of this innovative and environmentally-friendly model is to rely on system-wide innovative processes in order to redefine products, services and, most importantly, our way of thinking, to design waste out, thus allowing a profound transition to renewable energy sources [less ▲]

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See detailA study of the molecular mechanisms underlying the response of human colorectal adenomacarcinoma enterocytes to prebiotics and probiotics
Greenhalgh, Kacy UL

Doctoral thesis (2018)

The human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiome plays essential roles in maintaining human health. A variety of diseases including colorectal cancer (CRC) are associated with microbial dysbiosis ... [more ▼]

The human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiome plays essential roles in maintaining human health. A variety of diseases including colorectal cancer (CRC) are associated with microbial dysbiosis. Administration of microbial isolates associated with health benefits (e.g. prebiotics) together with specific dietary components (e.g., probiotics) may find application as supportive therapeutic options in the treatment and management of CRC. Although microbiome-modulating therapeutics hold great promise, such approaches are presently not formally integrated into treatment plans. To obtain better understanding of combined pre- and probiotic regimens in relation to CRC, the present study was dedicated to investigate the effects of selected prebiotics on the proliferation of CRC primary cells and conventional CRC-cell lines, the effects of prebiotics on the growth and metabolism of selected probiotic strains, and the combinatorial/synbiotic effects of selected pre- and probiotics on CRC proliferation. In addition, this work established the in vitro gut-on-a chip HuMiX model with a simulated high-fibre medium for co-culturing human and microbial cells in HuMiX. Furthermore, the anti-carcinogenic combinatorial effects of dietary fiber (e.g., prebiotics), and GIT bacteria (e.g., probiotics) were evaluated using human GIT transcriptomes and metabolomes in HuMiX. An integrated in vitro and in silico modeling approach was finally established to decipher the complex cross-talk between gut bacteria, dietary components and human host cells. My results demonstrate that in stark contrast to the individual pre- or probiotic treatments, the synbiotic regimen of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and dietary fiber results in the down-regulation of genes involved in pro-carcinogenic pathways and drug resistance (e.g., ABC transporters) and reduced levels of the oncometabolite lactate. Distinct ratios of organic and short-chain fatty acids are produced during the simulated regimens. Treatment of primary CRC-derived cells with a molecular cocktail reflecting the synbiotic regimen attenuated self-renewal capacity. The developped integrated in vitro and in silico modelling approach provides mechanistic insights into the interplay between pre- and probiotics and elucidation of the microbiota-host relationship. In summary, my dissertation work illustrates the potential of HuMiX to be used for nutritional studies and more precisely for studying the underlying mechanisms of the effects that dietary components (e.g., dietary fiber) and probiotics have on CRC-derived cells. Thereby, this dissertation work highlights the potential for formulating efficacious dietary supplements including synbiotics in the context of therapeutic regimens for microbiome-linked diseases in the future. [less ▲]

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See detailSimulation study of the electrical tunneling network conductivity of suspensions of hard spherocylinders
Atashpendar, Arshia; Arora, Sarthak; Rahm, Alexander UL et al

in Physical Review. E. (2018), 98

Using Monte Carlo simulations, we investigate the electrical conductivity of networks of hard rods with aspect ratios 10 and 20 as a function of the volume fraction for two tunneling conductance models ... [more ▼]

Using Monte Carlo simulations, we investigate the electrical conductivity of networks of hard rods with aspect ratios 10 and 20 as a function of the volume fraction for two tunneling conductance models. For a simple, orientationally independent tunneling model, we observe nonmonotonic behavior of the bulk conductivity as a function of volume fraction at the isotropic-nematic transition. However, this effect is lost if one allows for anisotropic tunneling. The relative conductivity enhancement increases exponentially with volume fraction in the nematic phase. Moreover, we observe that the orientational ordering of the rods in the nematic phase induces an anisotropy in the conductivity, i.e., enhanced values in the direction of the nematic director field. We also compute the mesh number of the Kirchhoff network, which turns out to be a simple alternative to the computationally expensive conductivity of large systems in order to get a qualitative estimate. [less ▲]

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See detailTutorials for using the Digraph3 Python software collection
Bisdorff, Raymond UL

Learning material (2018)

The documentation contains a set of tutorials introducing the main objects like digraphs, outranking digraphs and performance tableaux. There is also a tutorial provided on undirected graphs. Some ... [more ▼]

The documentation contains a set of tutorials introducing the main objects like digraphs, outranking digraphs and performance tableaux. There is also a tutorial provided on undirected graphs. Some tutorials are problem oriented and show how to compute the winner of an election, how to build a best choice recommendation, or how to linearly rank with multiple incommensurable ranking criteria. Other tutorials concern more specifically operational aspects of computing maximal independent sets (MISs) and kernels in graphs and digraphs. The tutorial about split, interval and permutation graphs is inspired by Martin Ch. Golumbic’s book on Algorithmic Graph Theory and Perfect Graphs. Finally, we provide a tutorial on tree graphs and spanning forests. [less ▲]

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See detailTopology and interaction effects in one-dimensional systems
Calzona, Alessio UL

Doctoral thesis (2018)

With the discovery of the integer quantum Hall effect by von Klitzing and collaborators in 1980, the mathematical field of topology entered the world of condensed matter physics. Almost three decades ... [more ▼]

With the discovery of the integer quantum Hall effect by von Klitzing and collaborators in 1980, the mathematical field of topology entered the world of condensed matter physics. Almost three decades later, this eventually led to the theoretical prediction and the experimental realization of many intriguing topological materials and topology-based devices. In this Ph.D. thesis, we will study the interplay between topology and another key topic in condensed matter physics, namely the study of inter-particle interactions in many-body systems. This interplay is analyzed from two different perspectives. Firstly, we studied how the presence of electron-electron interactions affects single-electron injection into a couple of counter-propagating one-dimensional edge channels. The latter appear at the edges of topologically non-trivial systems in the quantum spin Hall regime and they can also be engineered by exploiting the integer quantum Hall effect. Because of inter-channel interactions, the injected electron splits up into a couple of counter-propagating fractional excitations. Here, we carefully study and discuss their properties by means of an analytical approach based on the Luttinger liquid theory and the bosonization method. Our results are quite relevant in the context of the so-called electron quantum optics, a fast developing field which deeply exploits the topological protection of one-dimensional edge states to study the coherent propagation of electrons in solid-state devices. As an aside, we also showed that similar analytical techniques can also be used to study the time-resolved dynamics of a Luttinger liquid subject to a sudden change of the interaction strength, a protocol known as quantum quench which is gaining more and more attention, especially within the cold-atoms community. Secondly, we study how inter-particle interactions can enhance the topological properties of strictly one-dimensional fermionic systems. More precisely, the starting point is the seminal Kitaev chain, a free-fermionic lattice model which hosts exotic Majorana zero-energy modes at its ends. The latter are extremely relevant in the context of topological quantum computation because of their non-Abelian anyonic exchange statistics. Here we show that, by properly adding electron-electron interactions to the Kitaev chain, it is possible to obtain lattice models which feature zero-energy parafermionic modes, an even more intriguing generalization of Majoranas. To this end, we develop at first an exact mapping between Z4 parafermions and ordinary fermions on a lattice. We subsequently exploit this mapping to analytically obtain an exactly solvable fermionic model hosting zero-energy parafermions. We study their properties and numerically investigate their signatures and robustness even when parameters are tuned away from the exactly solvable point. [less ▲]

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See detailModernismen in Luxembourg: Modernismes au Luxembourg
Millim, Anne-Marie UL; De Toffoli, Ian

Book published by Centre national de littérature (2018)

Der vorliegende Band versteht sich als Beitrag zu den internationalen Modernismus-Studien. Zum ersten Mal werden Spannungen, Interaktionen und Friktionen in der kulturellen Welt sowie die Koexistenz von ... [more ▼]

Der vorliegende Band versteht sich als Beitrag zu den internationalen Modernismus-Studien. Zum ersten Mal werden Spannungen, Interaktionen und Friktionen in der kulturellen Welt sowie die Koexistenz von Tradition und Innovation im Luxemburger Kontext in einem interdisziplinären Sammelband mit einander in Verbindung gebracht. Die Beiträge thematisieren Gleichzeitigkeiten und Interaktionen zwischen den verschiedenen Kunstfeldern Architektur, Kunst und Literatur auf. Mit Beiträgen in vier Sprachen, Luxemburgisch, Deutsch, Französisch und Englisch, spiegelt der Band die mehrsprachige Realität des Luxemburger Forschungskontextes wieder und richtet sich sowohl an ein Luxemburger als auch an ein internationales Publikum. Diskussionen zur Natur der Moderne in spezifischen Kontexten bewegen sich häufig innerhalb der Dualität ›modern vs. traditionell‹, wobei die Tradition oft mit Rückständigkeit assoziiert wird. Werke, die in einem Kontext als innovativ und schrankenbrechend gelten, werden in anderen Zusammenhängen als verstaubt und epigonal angesehen. Wenn wir die Relevanz und Qualität der Luxemburger Literatur und Kunst vorrangig anhand ihrer Korrespondenzen zu ausländischen Meisterwerken messen, so laufen wir notwendigerweise das Risiko sie zu unterschätzen und misszuverstehen. Anliegen dieses Bandes ist deshalb radikal innovative Werke des Luxemburger Kontextes sichtbar zu machen, sowie auch Traditionen als Formen der Innovation zu verstehen. Einige der Fragen, die die Beiträger dieses Bandes aufwerfen: wann geschieht die Moderne in Luxemburg? Wie, und in Beziehung wozu, wird sie definiert? Wer definiert sie, mit welchem Anliegen und in welchem Kontext? Die Beiträger bezeugen verschiedene Herangehensweisen an die Thematik: die Artikel reichen von longue durée Studien, zu close readings von Stil, Themen und Formen, zu Untersuchungen des formativen Einflusses kultureller Faktoren. [less ▲]

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See detailAttracting and retaining international students in the EU (Country report Luxembourg)
Petry, Ralph UL; Coda, Nicolas UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL et al

Report (2018)

Unlike many other EU Member States, the higher education system in Luxembourg is marked by a particular characteristic, namely the fact that the University of Luxembourg is the only public university in ... [more ▼]

Unlike many other EU Member States, the higher education system in Luxembourg is marked by a particular characteristic, namely the fact that the University of Luxembourg is the only public university in the country. Established by law in 2003, the University of Luxembourg is therefore the main actor in the higher education system and hosts the large majority of international students in Luxembourg. In addition to the University of Luxembourg, two more types of institutions complement the higher education system in Luxembourg and are recognised by the Ministry of Higher Education and Research as higher education institutions (hereafter referred to as ‘HEIs’), namely: 1. Secondary educational institutions offering educational programmes that award an advanced technician’s certificate (‘Brevet de technicien supérieur’ – ‘BTS’); 2. Private foreign universities having infrastructures or campus in Luxembourg. In order to be able to award higher education diplomas as well as to host international students, all HEIs are mandatorily required to be approved by the Ministry of Higher Education and Research, with the exception of the University of Luxembourg because it was established by law. The admission conditions for international students to study at a HEI in Luxembourg are twofold: First, the international student must apply and be accepted at an approved HEI or at the University of Luxembourg. Second, once accepted at a HEI, s/he needs to apply for a temporary authorisation of stay, and subsequently, if applicable, a Visa D (valid for 3 months), from his/her country of origin before being authorised to travel to Luxembourg and before being issued a ‘student’ residence permit (valid for minimum 1 year and renewable) in Luxembourg. To conclude, the HEIs in Luxembourg, under the overall auspice of the Ministry of Higher Education and Research, as well as the immigration authorities are the main stakeholders in the context of international students studying in Luxembourg. Luxembourg transposed the Directive (EU) 2016/801 by the Law of 1 August 2018, which amended the amended ‘Immigration Law’ and entered into force on 21 September 2018. In this context, the study highlights in particular the introduction of a new residence permit for ‘private reasons’ in view of seeking employment or establishing a business in Luxembourg. This residence permit was newly introduced by the transposition of the Directive and allows international graduates to remain in the country for a maximum duration of nine months in order to find a job or establish a business in relation to their academic training. Prior to the transposition, international students were only able to change their immigration status to ‘salaried worker’ immediately after their graduation. Moreover, the transposition modified a number of legal dispositions, such as the increase of the maximum amount of hours that students are authorised to work, from 10 hours to 15 hours per week. Furthermore, Bachelor students enrolled in their first year of academic studies as well as students enrolled in a study programme awarding them a ‘BTS’ are no longer excluded from exercising a salaried activity as allowed by law. Lastly, the transposition also facilitates the intra-European mobility of international students who follow a European or multilateral programme that contains mobility measures or a convention between two or more HEIs. The attraction and retention of international students are not considered as a national political priority per se by the Luxembourgish authorities, but have to be perceived in an overall national political priority of attracting “talents” to Luxembourg, i.e. (highly) qualified persons, regardless of their nationality and in the interest of the country and its economy. The stakeholders consulted in the context of this study identified several factors that may have positive effects on the attraction and retention of international students. These include, among others: - the geographical position of Luxembourg with an important financial sector and several European institutions - the multilingual environment of the country as well as the University of Luxembourg - the HEI ranking of the University of Luxembourg - the comparatively low levels of tuition fees, particularly of the national public HEIs - the fact that the level tuition fees is the same for every student, no matter his/her nationality, with the exception of examples from private HEIs Furthermore, the consulted stakeholders identified several examples of good practices in the context of this study, such as for example: - A close and diligent collaboration between all stakeholders, in particular between the Directorate of Immigration, the Ministry of Higher Education and Research and the University of Luxembourg - Quality management of private HEI (mainly through the approval procedure) in view of the best interest of students - Affordable tuitions fees in the higher education system At the same time, the consulted stakeholders have identified several challenges, such as: - the languages of instruction (with a strong emphasis on French and German especially at the Bachelor/‘BTS’ levels) and the primary working languages (French and Luxembourgish) - socio-economic factors, particularly the high costs of living and the challenge of finding affordable housing - authenticity and veracity of transmitted diplomas in the context of a diploma recognition - a challenging procedure related to the entrance exam for international students who hold a high school diploma issued in a country that is not a signatory country of Paris/Lisbon conventions - potential misuse of the ‘student’ residence permit in view of trying to stay in the country instead of succeeding in the studies. In addition to the major legislative change introduced by the transposition of the Directive and the various factors and challenges mentioned above, the study also highlights a number of initiatives, offered in particular by the University of Luxembourg, aiming to support international students after their graduation and to encourage them to establish and/or maintain a connection to the national labour market. The study concludes with a section on bilateral and multilateral cooperation with third countries, both at the level of the Luxembourgish State as well as at the level of HEIs, particularly of the University of Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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