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See detailJoint signature of two or more systems with applications to multistate systems made up of two-state components
Marichal, Jean-Luc UL; Mathonet, Pierre; Navarro, Jorge et al

in European Journal of Operational Research (2017), 263(2), 559-570

The structure signature of a system made up of n components having continuous and i.i.d. lifetimes was defined in the eighties by Samaniego as the n-tuple whose k-th coordinate is the probability that the ... [more ▼]

The structure signature of a system made up of n components having continuous and i.i.d. lifetimes was defined in the eighties by Samaniego as the n-tuple whose k-th coordinate is the probability that the k-th component failure causes the system to fail. More recently, a bivariate version of this concept was considered as follows. The joint structure signature of a pair of systems built on a common set of components having continuous and i.i.d. lifetimes is a square matrix of order n whose (k,l)-entry is the probability that the k-th failure causes the first system to fail and the l-th failure causes the second system to fail. This concept was successfully used to derive a signature-based decomposition of the joint reliability of the two systems. In the first part of this paper we provide an explicit formula to compute the joint structure signature of two or more systems and extend this formula to the general non-i.i.d. case, assuming only that the distribution of the component lifetimes has no ties. We also provide and discuss a necessary and sufficient condition on this distribution for the joint reliability of the systems to have a signature-based decomposition. In the second part of this paper we show how our results can be efficiently applied to the investigation of the reliability and signature of multistate systems made up of two-state components. The key observation is that the structure function of such a multistate system can always be additively decomposed into a sum of classical structure functions. Considering a multistate system then reduces to considering simultaneously several two-state systems. [less ▲]

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See detailLuxembourg Analysis
Danescu, Elena UL; Kmec, Sonja UL

in Hartley, Cathy (Ed.) WESTERN EUROPE 2018 (2017)

With a long tradition of political stability and social democracy, a creative development model, skilled human capital and a culture of consensus, Luxembourg is at the forefront of Europe. Its main ... [more ▼]

With a long tradition of political stability and social democracy, a creative development model, skilled human capital and a culture of consensus, Luxembourg is at the forefront of Europe. Its main strategic challenge is how to achieve economic diversification while maintaining the sustainability of the Luxembourg social model. The country has embarked on the "third industrial revolution", with innovation as the main driver of sustainable growth and the University of Luxembourg as a major player. [less ▲]

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See detailValue-Added Modelling in Primary and Secondary School: An Integrative Review of 674 Publications
Levy, Jessica UL; Keller, Ulrich UL; Brunner, Martin et al

Scientific Conference (2017, December)

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See detailEnergy, Risk and Governance: The Case of Nuclear Energy in India
Wong, Catherine UL

Book published by Palgrave Macmillan (2017)

This book is about how risk, energy and governance are intertwined in the development of the nuclear industry in India and its relationship with the Indian public. It provides a rare insider-view of how ... [more ▼]

This book is about how risk, energy and governance are intertwined in the development of the nuclear industry in India and its relationship with the Indian public. It provides a rare insider-view of how the nuclear establishment thinks about risk and contrasts that with public understandings of nuclear risk. Through that, the book presents a more nuanced picture of why nuclear energy is considered a rational choice in spite of the risks; the ambiguities in both expert and public risk perceptions; and the internal reflexivities that have emerged within the nuclear establishment as a result of the Fukushima-Daiichi disaster which are not displayed in the public discourse. The insights in this book are not unique to India and similar observations can easily be made in the global nuclear industry. Reflecting on what this means for risk governance in practice, the book proposes a toolkit that practitioners in the nuclear industry can use in public engagement, risk communication and deliberation at various stages of decision-making. [less ▲]

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See detailOn a geometric framework for Lagrangian supermechanics
Bruce, Andrew UL; Grabowska, Katarzyna; Moreno, Giovanni

in The Journal of Geometric Mechanics (2017), 9(4), 411-437

We re--examine classical mechanics with both commuting and anticommuting degrees of freedom. We do this by defining the phase dynamics of a general Lagrangian system as an implicit differential equation ... [more ▼]

We re--examine classical mechanics with both commuting and anticommuting degrees of freedom. We do this by defining the phase dynamics of a general Lagrangian system as an implicit differential equation in the spirit of Tulczyjew. Rather than parametrising our basic degrees of freedom by a specified Grassmann algebra, we use arbitrary supermanifolds by following the categorical approach to supermanifolds. [less ▲]

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See detailA Framework for Optimizing Multi-cell NOMA: Delivering Demand with Less Resource
You, Lei; Lei, Lei UL; Yuan, Di et al

in 2017 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM) (2017, December)

Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) allows multiple users to simultaneously access the same time-frequency resource by using superposition coding and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Thus far ... [more ▼]

Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) allows multiple users to simultaneously access the same time-frequency resource by using superposition coding and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Thus far, most papers on NOMA have focused on performance gain for one or sometimes two base stations. In this paper, we study multi-cell NOMA and provide a general framework for user clustering and power allocation, taking into account inter-cell interference, for optimizing resource allocation of NOMA in multi-cell networks of arbitrary topology. We provide a series of theoretical analysis, to algorithmically enable optimization approaches. The resulting algorithmic notion is very general. Namely, we prove that for any performance metric that monotonically increases in the cells’ resource consumption, we have convergence guarantee for global optimum. We apply the framework with its algorithmic concept to a multi-cell scenario to demonstrate the gain of NOMA in achieving significantly higher efficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Cipher, the Random and the Ransom: A Survey on Current and Future Ransomware
Genç, Ziya Alper UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL; Ryan, Peter UL

Scientific Conference (2017, November 17)

Although conceptually not new, ransomware recently regained attraction in the cybersecurity community: notorious attacks in fact have caused serious damage, proving their disruptive effect. This is likely ... [more ▼]

Although conceptually not new, ransomware recently regained attraction in the cybersecurity community: notorious attacks in fact have caused serious damage, proving their disruptive effect. This is likely just the beginning of a new era. According to a recent intelligence report by Cybersecurity Ventures, the total cost due to ransomware attacks is predicted to exceed $5 billion in 2017. How can this disruptive threat can be contained? Current anti-ransomware solutions are effective only against existing threats, and the worst is yet to come. Cyber criminals will design and deploy more sophisticated strategies, overcoming current defenses and, as it commonly happens in security, defenders and attackers will embrace a competition that will never end. In this arm race, anticipating how current ransomware will evolve may help at least being prepared for some future damage. In this paper, we describe existing techniques to mitigate ransomware and we discuss their limitations. Discussing how current ransomware could become even more disruptive and elusive is crucial to conceive more solid defense and systems that can mitigate zero-day ransomware, yielding higher security levels for information systems, including critical infrastructures such as intelligent transportation networks and health institutions. [less ▲]

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See detailL’événement énonciatif en sémiotique de l’image : de Roland Barthes à la sémiotique tensive
Colas-Blaise, Marion UL; Dondero, Maria Giulia

in La part de l'oeil (2017)

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See detailBritain, the US and Greece after World War II: Anglo-American Relations and the Cold War
Paravantis, Spero UL

Book published by IB Tauris - 1st (2017)

This Book provides a new analysis of the role that the British played in the shift in American foreign policy from 1946 to 1950. To achieve this shift (which also included support of British strategic ... [more ▼]

This Book provides a new analysis of the role that the British played in the shift in American foreign policy from 1946 to 1950. To achieve this shift (which also included support of British strategic interests in the Eastern Mediterranean) this book argues that the British used Greece, first as a way to draw the United States further into European affairs, and then as a way to anchor the United States in Europe, achieving a guarantee of security of the Eastern Mediterranean and of Western Europe. While trying to understand and explain the origins and dynamics of Anglo-American foreign policy in the pre and early years of the Cold War, the role that perception played in the design and implementation of foreign policy became a central focus of the research. From this point came the realization of a general lack of emphasis and research into the ways in which the British government managed to convince the United States government to assume support for worldwide British strategic objectives. How this support was achieved is the central theme of this book. It also addresses the question of whether or not Anglo-American policy was simply a convergence of common Anglo-American objectives, or if it was a result of common objectives created by British influence? To support these hypotheses, this work uses mainly the British and American documents relating to Greece from 1946 to 1950 to explain how these nations made and implemented policy towards Greece during this crucial period in history. In so doing it also explains how American foreign policy in general changed from its pre-war focus on non-intervention, to the post-war policy which heavily favours intervention. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of Fingerprinting Techniques for Tor Hidden Services
Panchenko, Andriy UL; Mitseva, Asya UL; Henze, Martin et al

in Proceedings of the 24th ACM Computer and Communications Security (ACM CCS) 16th Workshop on Privacy in the Electronic Society (ACM WPES 2017) (2017, October 31)

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See detailAdvanced Interest Flooding Attacks in Named-Data Networking
Signorello, Salvatore UL; Marchal, Samuel; François, Jérôme et al

Scientific Conference (2017, October 30)

The Named-Data Networking (NDN) has emerged as a clean-slate Internet proposal on the wave of Information-Centric Networking. Although the NDN’s data-plane seems to offer many advantages, e.g., native ... [more ▼]

The Named-Data Networking (NDN) has emerged as a clean-slate Internet proposal on the wave of Information-Centric Networking. Although the NDN’s data-plane seems to offer many advantages, e.g., native support for multicast communications and flow balance, it also makes the network infrastructure vulnerable to a specific DDoS attack, the Interest Flooding Attack (IFA). In IFAs, a botnet issuing unsatisfiable content requests can be set up effortlessly to exhaust routers’ resources and cause a severe performance drop to legitimate users. So far several countermeasures have addressed this security threat, however, their efficacy was proved by means of simplistic assumptions on the attack model. Therefore, we propose a more complete attack model and design an advanced IFA. We show the efficiency of our novel attack scheme by extensively assessing some of the state-of-the-art countermeasures. Further, we release the software to perform this attack as open source tool to help design future more robust defense mechanisms. [less ▲]

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See detailEthereum: state of knowledge and research perspectives
Tikhomirov, Sergei UL

Scientific Conference (2017, October 24)

Ethereum is a decentralized application platform that allows users to write, deploy, and interact with smart contracts -- programs that encode financial agreements. A peer-to-peer network of mutually ... [more ▼]

Ethereum is a decentralized application platform that allows users to write, deploy, and interact with smart contracts -- programs that encode financial agreements. A peer-to-peer network of mutually distrusting nodes maintains a common view of the state of all accounts and executes smart contracts' code upon request. The global state is stored in a blockchain secured by a proof-of-work consensus mechanism similar to that in Bitcoin. The core value proposition of Ethereum is a Turing-complete programming language that enables implementing complex logic in smart contracts. Decentralized applications without a trusted third party are appealing in many areas, such as financial services, crowdfunding, and gambling. Smart contracts as a research topic contains many unsolved challenges and spans over areas ranging from cryptography, consensus algorithms, and programming languages to governance, ethical, and legal issues. This paper is the first to summarize the state of knowledge in this field. We provide a technical overview of Ethereum and outline open challenges along with proposed solutions. We also mention alternative blockchains with Turing complete programming capabilities. [less ▲]

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See detailThe dialectic of transnational integration and national disintegration as mayor challenge of the aggregation of knowledge by European Expert Groups
Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL

Scientific Conference (2017, October 14)

From a phenomenological perspective on modern systems of knowledge production a transformation towards a hybrid knowledge production has taken place. Categories like locality or embeddedness have been ... [more ▼]

From a phenomenological perspective on modern systems of knowledge production a transformation towards a hybrid knowledge production has taken place. Categories like locality or embeddedness have been overcome and rise of arenas of cross-broader-cooperation can be observed. The political sector is an important example where a rise of decision-making contexts with supra national relevance can be detected. As consequence a transformation of the political advisory-system towards the genesis of multinational advisory organisations on supranational level can be observed. This means that decision-making knowledge is developed and standardized on supranational level and supposed to be applied top-down on local level. Theoretically such a cooperative form of knowledge co-production of application-driven knowledge by a heterogeneous set of stakeholders aims to produce a context specific solution for specific problems of application (“socially robust knowledge”) in order to provide evidence-based policy-making. But in fact such a processes of unification of knowledge on supranational level often reduces national policy autonomy and is associated with the risk of limited compliance to the specific local needs. Thus the universal transnational knowledge is systematically contested by a variety of particularistic relevancies as is lacks in socially robustness for the application on national decision-making level (“dialectic of transnational integration and disintegration “. This paper analyses how national policy systems are responding to global integration initiatives. By using an in-depth-case-study, I focus especially on individual actors and their responses in the light of a multiplicity of institutional relevancies and the effective social robustness of the aggregated knowledge on national level. [less ▲]

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See detail“They can communicate, BUT…” - Language learning goals of forced migrants in multilingual Luxembourg
Kalocsanyiova, Erika UL

Scientific Conference (2017, October 13)

This contribution presents data from an ongoing doctoral research project that focuses on the linguistic integration trajectory of Syrian and Iraqi refugees in Luxembourg. Drawing on interview data and ... [more ▼]

This contribution presents data from an ongoing doctoral research project that focuses on the linguistic integration trajectory of Syrian and Iraqi refugees in Luxembourg. Drawing on interview data and classroom observations we explore teachers’ and learners’ attitudes towards Luxembourg’s main languages and their beliefs about how to approach language learning in a multilingual society. Upon arrival, refugees are immediately exposed to the country’s immense linguistic diversity along with ambiguous and often competing ideologies as to what languages to learn. While French is the main vernacular language, English has been gaining importance as lingua franca of the Grand Duchy’s large international community. Government sources increasingly emphasise the role of Luxembourgish as the sole language of integration, despite its minority position in several domains. Other languages such as German or Portuguese might be equally important for navigating local life. Refugees from regions where (a regional/dialectal form of) Arabic enjoys the status of majority language, are expected to encounter difficulties in adapting to the complex language situation of Luxembourg. As a result, the research participants have shown a strong interest in developing different capabilities in a variety of languages and for a range of purposes. Our data confirms that wide-ranging learning outcomes are pursued in this context. While teachers acknowledge the importance of this aspect for setting language learning goals, system-wide, policy-declared goals still prevail in their pedagogical practice. Yet, we have observed instances of more holistic approaches that recognize the multilingual character of communication and learning, and take better account of the learners’ short- and long-term expectations. [less ▲]

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See detailUne vision d’avenir pour l’Europe. Pertinence et modernité des préconisations contenues dans le rapport Werner d’octobre 1970
Danescu, Elena UL

Article for general public (2017)

Le 8 octobre 1970, Pierre Werner présentait à Luxembourg le plan de réalisation par étapes de l’Union économique et monétaire dans la Communauté - le rapport Werner . Presque cinquante ans après, cette ... [more ▼]

Le 8 octobre 1970, Pierre Werner présentait à Luxembourg le plan de réalisation par étapes de l’Union économique et monétaire dans la Communauté - le rapport Werner . Presque cinquante ans après, cette réflexion clairvoyante forgée en temps de crise et qui a dessiné l’UEM dans ses moindres détails, s’avère d’une étonnante modernité. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetic SANS as a probe to disclose internal interfaces and the spin structure of nanoparticles
Michels, Andreas UL

Scientific Conference (2017, October 11)

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See detailOn the Concept of a Filtered Bundle
Bruce, Andrew UL; Grabowska, Katarzyna; Grabowski, Janusz

in International Journal of Geometric Methods in Modern Physics (2017), 15

We present the notion of a filtered bundle as a generalization of a graded bundle. In particular, we weaken the necessity of the transformation laws for local coordinates to exactly respect the weight of ... [more ▼]

We present the notion of a filtered bundle as a generalization of a graded bundle. In particular, we weaken the necessity of the transformation laws for local coordinates to exactly respect the weight of the coordinates by allowing more general polynomial transformation laws. The key examples of such bundles include affine bundles and various jet bundles, both of which play fundamental roles in geometric mechanics and classical field theory. We also present the notion of double filtered bundles which provide natural generalizations of double vector bundles and double affine bundles. Furthermore, we show that the linearization of a filtered bundle — which can be seen as a partial polarization of the admissible changes of local coordinates — is well defined. [less ▲]

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See detailLes acteurs économiques catalans sont inquiets
Högenauer, Anna-Lena UL

Article for general public (2017)

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