References of "1993"
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See detailAlfred Oppenheimer : un grand témoin est mort
Scuto, Denis UL

Article for general public (1993)

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See detailÉconomie:les règles du jeu
Didier, Michel; Danescu, Elena UL; Oprescu, Gheorghe et al

Book published by Humanitas - 1st edition (1993)

Cet ouvrage est un livre d'initiation aux mécanismes de l'économie actuelle. De quoi dépend notre salaire ? Comment naît, vit et meurt une entreprise ? Quels sont les mécanismes du marché et les limites ... [more ▼]

Cet ouvrage est un livre d'initiation aux mécanismes de l'économie actuelle. De quoi dépend notre salaire ? Comment naît, vit et meurt une entreprise ? Quels sont les mécanismes du marché et les limites de l'État ? D'où vient la monnaie ? Que se passe-t-il dans la finance internationale ? Peut-on supprimer le déficit extérieur, gagner sur le chômage, vaincre l'inégalité, le sous-développement et la misère ? Quelles sont les perspectives ouvertes par le marché unique européen ? L'auteur répond à toutes ces questions. Simplement dans le langage de tous les jours. Pour que chacun, et notamment les étudiants en économie et les cadre spécialisés connaissent et comprennent les règles du jeu économique. Le contenu de ce livre est idéal pour préparer efficacement les examens d'économie. Conforme aux programmes officiels français, il est construit sous la forme de 35 fiches de révision, courtes mais complètes, accompagnées d'exercices nombreux et variés, tous corrigés. En fin d'ouvrage figurent quelques rappels et conseils concernant l'épreuve d'économie, ainsi qu'une courte bibliographie. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of some stable aggregation functions
Marichal, Jean-Luc UL; Roubens, Marc

in Proc. 1st Int. Conf. on Industrial Engineering and Production Management (IEPM’93) (1993, June)

We characterize the class of ordinaly stable, continuous, neutral (symmetric) and monotonic aggregators together with the class of associative or decomposable, continuous, neutral and monotonic ... [more ▼]

We characterize the class of ordinaly stable, continuous, neutral (symmetric) and monotonic aggregators together with the class of associative or decomposable, continuous, neutral and monotonic aggregation operators which are stable for any positive linear transformation. [less ▲]

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See detailTRIPAT - ein Verfahren zur Analyse dreimodaler binärer Daten
Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Orlik, Peter; Ganter, Bernhard

Scientific Conference (1993, March)

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See detailMapping of the Mod-1 locus on mouse chromosome 9.
Nass, S. J.; Olowson, M.; Miyashita, N. et al

in Mammalian Genome : Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society (1993), 4(6), 333-7

A new method for typing the Mod-1 locus on mouse Chromosome (Chr) 9 was developed, based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) within a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified fragment. The ... [more ▼]

A new method for typing the Mod-1 locus on mouse Chromosome (Chr) 9 was developed, based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) within a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified fragment. The new method led us to revise the strain distribution pattern (SDP) of Mod-1 in the BXD (C57BL/6J x DBA/2J) and AKXD (AKR/J x DBA/2J) recombinant inbred (RI) strains. The new SDP eliminates several previously reported examples of double recombination events between Mod-1 and the closest flanking loci in the BXD and AKXD strains. In the BXD strains, the revised SDP of Mod-1 was identical to that of the Mod-1-related D9Rtil locus. Thus, the identity of D9Rtil as a Mod-1-related locus rather than Mod-1 itself is in question. The method was also applied to an interspecific backcross panel between an inbred strain of Mus musculus molossinus (MSM/Ms) and C57BL/6J to map Mod-1 with respect to surrounding microsatellite loci, defining the proximal localization of Mod-1 with respect to D9Mit10 with a genetic distance of 0.6 +/- 0.6 cM. [less ▲]

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See detailAtmospheric load response of the oceans determined using Geosat data
van Dam, Tonie UL; Wahr, John

in Geophysical Journal International (1993), 113(1), 1-16

Approximately one year's worth of altimeter-derived sea-surface heights are compared with global sea-level pressure fields to verify the open ocean inverted barometer response (-1 cm mb-1). When pressure ... [more ▼]

Approximately one year's worth of altimeter-derived sea-surface heights are compared with global sea-level pressure fields to verify the open ocean inverted barometer response (-1 cm mb-1). When pressure is fit to the sea-surface height along individual altimeter tracks, the response is found to be only 60–70 per cent of the theoretical response or approximately -0.6 to -0.7 cm mb-1. Fits at fixed geographic locations show a clear dependence on latitude. There is a steady decrease in the absolute value o the regression coefficient between 70° and 20°, and then an abrupt increase again closer to the equator. A simple error analysis demonstrates that errors in the pressure data would reduce the along-track regression values, as is observed, and could produce a similar latitude dependence. But, the errors are unlikely to be large enough to explain the entire departure from inverted barometer. We estimate that pressure errors are apt to perturb the along-track track results by no more than about 0.1-0.2 cm mb-1. The possibility that the remaining disagreement is due to a global coherence between wind- and pressure-driven sea-surface height variability is considered. Winds driven by the pressure gradients of synoptic storms induce a sea-surface height response that is opposite in direction to that caused by the pressure cell. the wind-driven response is estimated for a stationary storm over a homogeneous barotropic ocean and for a moving storm over a two-layer baroclinic ocean by modeling the pressure cell as an idealized Gaussian distribution. the model results indicate that the wind-induced sea-surface height depends on both the radius and the translational velocity of the pressure cell. But, the winds associated with storms moving at average speeds of 10 ms-1 are apt to lower the theoretical pressure response in the model by only approximately 0.1 cm mb-1. the surface stress associated with those winds has the same latitudinal trend between 70° and 20° as the regression coefficients. But, the response of the ocean to that stress does not appear to exhibit the same trend. Nevertheless, the abrupt change in the regression coefficients near the equator suggests the apparent non-inverted barometer response may reflect a real change in sea-surface height related to atmospheric forcing (though the results near the equator are not as well defined as those at higher latitudes). [less ▲]

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See detailThe genetic map around the tail kinks (tk) locus on mouse chromosome 9.
Imai, K.; Nass, S. J.; Olowson, M. et al

in Mammalian Genome : Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society (1993), 4(10), 560-4

Tail kinks (tk) is a classical mouse skeletal mutation, located on Chromosome (Chr) 9. As the first step for the positional cloning of the tk gene, we have established a genetic map of a region ... [more ▼]

Tail kinks (tk) is a classical mouse skeletal mutation, located on Chromosome (Chr) 9. As the first step for the positional cloning of the tk gene, we have established a genetic map of a region surrounding the tk locus by generating a backcross segregating for tk. From this backcross, 1004 progeny were analyzed for the coat-color phenotype of the proximally located dilute (d) gene and for the distally flanking microsatellite marker, D9Mit12. Fifty-six recombinants between d and tk and 75 recombinants between tk and D9Mit12 were identified, completing a panel of 130 recombinants including one double recombinant. This panel allowed us to map five microsatellite loci as well as d and Mod-1 with respect to tk. We show that one of the microsatellite markers mapped, D9Mit9, does not recombine at all with tk in our backcross. This indicates that the D9Mit9 locus will serve as a good starting point for a chromosomal walk to the tk gene. [less ▲]

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See detailDe identiteit van het lichaam.
Biesta, Gert UL

in Comenius (1993), 13(3), 274-290

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See detailLe créole français de St-Louis (le tayo) en Nouvelle-Calédonie
Ehrhart, Sabine UL

Book published by Buske (1993)

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See detailAn epithelial-dependent contracting factor induced by calcium influx in guinea-pig trachea
Bertrand, C.; Da Silva, A.; Landry, Y. et al

in Pulmonary Pharmacology (1993), 6(1), 69-76

The effects of epithelium removal were studied on the contraction induced by Ca2+ in K(+)-depolarizing solution, and by the calcium ionophore A 23187 in guinea-pig isolated tracheal strips. Epithelium ... [more ▼]

The effects of epithelium removal were studied on the contraction induced by Ca2+ in K(+)-depolarizing solution, and by the calcium ionophore A 23187 in guinea-pig isolated tracheal strips. Epithelium removal reduced the maximal response to Ca2+ in K(+)-depolarizing solution and caused a significant shift to the right of the Ca2+ concentration-response curves. The contraction induced by the calcium ionophore A 23187 (10(-6) M) was also markedly reduced by epithelium removal. These results suggest the occurrence of an epithelium-derived contracting factor. The effects of hexamethonium, atropine, spantide and thiorphan showed that acetylcholine and neurokinins play a minor role in the Ca(2+)-induced contraction. The epithelium-dependent potentiation of the calcium- and of the A 23187-induced contractions was inhibited by an antibody selective for rat calcitonin gene-related peptide (rCGRP alpha). Therefore, CGRP-like immunoreactive material may be part of the epithelium-dependent contracting factor of guinea-pig trachea. Comparison of concentration-response curves for rCGRP alpha in epithelium-free and in intact guinea-pig tracheal strips suggests that an epithelium-dependent contracting factor may be mobilized by CGRP. [less ▲]

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See detailEpithelial factors: modulation of the airway smooth muscle tone
Bertrand, C.; Tschirhart, Eric UL

in Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology (1993), 7(6), 261-73

The airway epithelium is composed of a heterogeneous population of cells. This epithelial layer is not only a physical barrier but also a target responding to a variety of inflammatory mediators. These ... [more ▼]

The airway epithelium is composed of a heterogeneous population of cells. This epithelial layer is not only a physical barrier but also a target responding to a variety of inflammatory mediators. These cells can respond by releasing contracting and relaxing factors to modulate airway responsiveness. They can also metabolize some of the inflammatory mediators. Epithelial damage is a consistent feature of some respiratory conditions, but whether or not such damage contributes to airway disease is for the moment unknown. This review summarizes the literature on the known and proposed roles of the epithelium in the modulation of the airway smooth muscle tone. [less ▲]

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See detailFine genetic mapping of the proximal part of mouse chromosome 2 excludes Pax-8 as a candidate gene for Danforth's short tail (Sd).
Koseki, H.; Zachgo, J.; Mizutani, Y. et al

in Mammalian Genome : Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society (1993), 4(6), 324-7

Danforth's short tail (Sd) is a semidominant mutation of the mouse with effects on the skeleton and the urogenital system. In view of its phenotype and its position in the proximal part of Chromosome (Chr ... [more ▼]

Danforth's short tail (Sd) is a semidominant mutation of the mouse with effects on the skeleton and the urogenital system. In view of its phenotype and its position in the proximal part of Chromosome (Chr) 2, three genes qualified as possible candidates: Pax-8, a paired box-containing gene; Midkine (Mdk), a retinoic acid-responsive gene; and a new locus (Etl-4) identified by enhancer trapping with a lacZ reporter gene which showed expression in the notochord, the mesonephric mesenchyme, and the apical ectodermal ridge. Three different backcrosses involving all three genes in different combinations were set up and analyzed. From our results we conclude that Sd, Etl-4, Pax-8, and Mdk are independent loci, with Etl-4 being the closest genetic marker (1.1 +/- 1.4 cM) to the Danforth's short tail (Sd) gene. [less ▲]

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See detailThe ventralizing effect of the notochord on somite differentiation in chick embryos.
Brand-Saberi, B.; Ebensperger, C.; Wilting, J. et al

in Anatomy & Embryology (1993), 188(3), 239-45

The dorso-ventral pattern formation of the somites becomes manifest by the formation of the epithelially organized dorsal dermomyotome and the mesenchymal ventrally situated sclerotome. While the ... [more ▼]

The dorso-ventral pattern formation of the somites becomes manifest by the formation of the epithelially organized dorsal dermomyotome and the mesenchymal ventrally situated sclerotome. While the dermomyotome gives rise to dermis and muscle, the sclerotome differentiates into cartilage and bone of the axial skeleton. The onset of muscle differentiation can be visualized by immunohistochemistry for proteins associated with muscle contractility, e.g. desmin. The sclerotome cells and the epithelial ventral half of the somite express Pax-1, a member of a gene family with a sequence similarity to Drosophila paired-box-containing genes. In the present study, changes of Pax-1 expression were studied after grafting an additional notochord into the paraxial mesoderm region. The influence of the notochord and the floor-plate on dermomyotome formation and myotome differentiation has also been investigated. The notochord is found to exert a ventralizing effect on the establishment of the dorso-ventral pattern in the somites. Notochord grafts lead to a suppression of the formation and differentiation of the dorsal somitic derivatives. Simultaneously, a widening of the Pax-1-expressing domain in the sclerotome can be observed. In contrast, grafted roof-plate and aorta do not interfere with dorso-ventral patterning of the somitic derivatives. [less ▲]

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See detailStructure-activity studies of bradykinin analogues on rat mast cell histamine release
Bueb, Jean-Luc UL; Mousli, M.; Landry, Y. et al

in Peptides (1993), 14(4), 685-9

Bradykinin (BK), kallidin (KD), and various analogues induced histamine release from rat mast cells. The results obtained with substituted analogues of BK indicated that: 1) the presence of both Arg ... [more ▼]

Bradykinin (BK), kallidin (KD), and various analogues induced histamine release from rat mast cells. The results obtained with substituted analogues of BK indicated that: 1) the presence of both Arg residues at position 1 and 9 of kinins was favorable to confer histamine-releasing activity, 2) acetylation of the N-terminal amino acid residue led to a drastic reduction of this activity, 3) addition of a D-Arg residue at the N-terminus reduced their activity, as well as trans-4-hydroxyproline (Hyp) substitutions at position 2 or 3,4) D-Arg0 addition and Hyp3 substitution were synergistic in lowering activity, and 5) D-Phe7 substitution led to enhanced histamine-releasing activity. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of the Pax-3 gene in the mouse mutant splotch.
Goulding, M.; Sterrer, S.; Fleming, J. et al

in Genomics (1993), 17(2), 355-63

In a linkage analysis of Pax-3 and splotch no recombinations were found in 117 backcross mice. Molecular analysis of Pax-3 in three alleles of splotch shows a number of significant alterations to the Pax ... [more ▼]

In a linkage analysis of Pax-3 and splotch no recombinations were found in 117 backcross mice. Molecular analysis of Pax-3 in three alleles of splotch shows a number of significant alterations to the Pax-3 gene. In Sp/Sp embryos, cDNA PCR analysis reveals a shortened transcript in which exon 4 of Pax-3 is deleted due to mutation of the splice acceptor site of intron 3. In the Sp4H allele, the Pax-3 gene is deleted and in Spd embryos, Pax-3 expression is significantly lower than that in normal littermate embryos. The linkage analysis, shortened Pax-3 transcript in Sp, and deletion of Pax-3 in Sp4H described here, together with the previous report of an intragenic deletion in Pax-3 in Sp2H mice and the deletion of Pax-3 in Spr mice, provide strong evidence for the allelic identity of Pax-3 and Sp. [less ▲]

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