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See detail(Re)shaping Educational Research through ‘Programification’: Institutional Expansion, Change, and Translation in Norway
Zapp, Mike UL; Helgetun, Jo B.; Powell, Justin J W UL

in European Journal of Education (in press), 52

Educational research in Norway has experienced unprecedented structural expansion as well as cognitive shifts over the past two decades, especially due to increased state investments and the strategic use ... [more ▼]

Educational research in Norway has experienced unprecedented structural expansion as well as cognitive shifts over the past two decades, especially due to increased state investments and the strategic use of extensive and multi-year thematic programs to fund research projects. Applying a neo-institutionalist framework, we examine institutionalization dynamics in cultural-cognitive, normative, and regulative dimensions over the past two decades using interviews, research program calls, policy documents, and funding data. In the cultural-cognitive dimension, we find references to the knowledge society, the importance of evidence in policy-making, and ideas of quality, excellence, and relevance. In the normative dimension, we find the introduction of new professional and methodological standards, reflecting broader global patterns of academic and epistemic drift. In the regulative dimension, the strengthened role of both government and the Research Council of Norway is manifest in substantial growth in both funding and large-scale, long-term planning, including thematic choices—evidence of ‘programification’. The importance of external models has grown in an era of internationalization, yet translation occurs at every level of governance of educational research. This results in a specific Norwegian research model, guided by a mode of governance of programs, that maintains social values traditionally strong in Nordic societies. [less ▲]

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See detailHow does research evaluation impact educational research? Exploring intended and unintended consequences of research assessment in the United Kingdom, 1986–2014
Marques, Marcelo UL; Powell, Justin J W UL; Zapp, Mike UL et al

in European Educational Research Journal (in press)

Research evaluation systems in many countries aim to improve the quality of higher education. Among the first such systems, the UK's Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) from 1986 is now the Research ... [more ▼]

Research evaluation systems in many countries aim to improve the quality of higher education. Among the first such systems, the UK's Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) from 1986 is now the Research Excellence Framework (REF). Highly-institutionalized, it holds research(ers) accountable. While studies describe the effects at different levels, this longitudinal analysis examines the gradual institutionalization and (un)intended consequences from 1986 to 2014. First, we analyze historically RAE/REF's rational, formalization, standardization, and transparency, framing it as a strong research evaluation system. Second, we locate the multidisciplinary field of education, analyzing submission behavior (staff, outputs, funding) of Departments of Education over time. We find: decreases in submitted staff; the research article as preferred publication format; the rise of quantitative analysis; and high and stable concentration of funding among few Departments. Policy instruments invoke varied responses, wit such reactivity shown by the increasing selectivity of submitted staff as a form of reverse engineering and the research article as the preferred output as a self-fulfilling prophecy. The funding concentration manifests an intended consequence, facilitating greater disparities between Departments of Education. These findings emphasize how research assessment impacts the structural organization and cognitive development of educational research in the UK. [less ▲]

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See detailMoving towards Mode 2? Evidence-based Policy-Making and the Changing Conditions for Educational Research in Germany
Zapp, Mike UL; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Science and Public Policy (2017), 2017(doi: 10.1093/scipol/scw091),

The ‘Mode 2’ conceptual approach has become among the most widely applied to discuss changes in contemporary science and innovation systems. Operationalized, this approach suggests that contextualized ... [more ▼]

The ‘Mode 2’ conceptual approach has become among the most widely applied to discuss changes in contemporary science and innovation systems. Operationalized, this approach suggests that contextualized, transdisciplinary, application-driven, reflexive, and high-quality scientific knowledge will be produced by an increasingly heterogeneous set of organizations, with universities no longer as dominant in knowledge production. Analyzing the case of educational research in Germany, which has undergone profound institutional and paradigmatic change since the turn of the century, allows us to ask to what extent the Mode 2 thesis holds. Considerable investments in ‘empirical’ educational research and the top-down setting of the research agenda have, we argue, fundamentally altered the research infrastructure of this increasingly diverse multidisciplinary field, challenging traditional humanities-based Pädagogik. Facilitated especially by waves of large-scale assessments of pupils’ school performance, the rapidly-growing ‘empirical’ educational research field is characterized by quantitative and policy-relevant (applied) knowledge claims. Finally, we identify risks associated with rapid and policy-induced shifts in educational research from Mode 1 to Mode 2. [less ▲]

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See detailThe World Bank and Education: Governing (through) Knowledge
Zapp, Mike UL

in International Journal of Educational Development (2017), 1

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See detailHow to Construct an Organizational Field: Empirical Educational Research in Germany, 1995–2015
Zapp, Mike UL; Powell, Justin J W UL

in European Educational Research Journal (2016), 15(5), 537-557

Over the past two decades, educational research in Germany has undergone unprecedented changes. Following large-scale assessments such as the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS ... [more ▼]

Over the past two decades, educational research in Germany has undergone unprecedented changes. Following large-scale assessments such as the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), and a political interest in evidence-based policy-making, quality assessment and internationalization, direct involvement of national decision-makers has led to the establishment of new organizations, programs, funding structures, professorships, and training programs. Thus, a markedly different educational research field has emerged in contrast to the traditional philosophy-rooted, hermeneutics-trained and humanities-based German pedagogy or education science. Instead, the new paradigm refers to itself as "empirical educational research" (EER). Thus, we trace institutionalization processes of EER from early 1995 through the foundation of the Empirical Educational Research Association (GEBF), which rivals the long-standing German Educational Research Association (DGfE). Official documents shed light on policymakers’ and funding agencies’ motivations and rationales as they successfully engage in building new research infrastructure. Expert interviews conducted with (inter)national representatives illuminate perceptions of crucial actors involved in field institutionalization. What are the causes and consequences of the emergent educational research in Germany? Extending the neo-institutionalist organizational field literature, particularly about incipient stages of such fields, we show that a new division of labor transcends national and international as well as governmental and non-governmental borders. [less ▲]

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See detailEducating the World: International Organizations and the Construction of Lifelong Learning
Zapp, Mike UL

Doctoral thesis (2014)

While the 1960s and 1970s still knew permanent education (Council of Europe), recurrent education (OECD) and lifelong education (UNESCO), over the past 20 years, lifelong learning has become the single ... [more ▼]

While the 1960s and 1970s still knew permanent education (Council of Europe), recurrent education (OECD) and lifelong education (UNESCO), over the past 20 years, lifelong learning has become the single emblem for reforms in (pre-) primary, higher and adult education systems and international debates on education. Both highly industrialized and less industrialized countries embrace the concept as a response to the most diverse economic, social and demographic challenges – in many cases motivated by international organizations (IOs). Yet, literature on the nature of this influence, the diffusion of the concept among IOs and their understanding of it is scant and usually focuses on a small set of actors. Based on longitudinal data and a large set of education documents, the work identifies rapid diffusion of the concept across a heterogeneous, expansive and dynamic international field of 88 IOs in the period 1990-2013, which is difficult to explain with functionalist accounts. Based on the premises of world polity theory, this paper argues that what diffuses resembles less the bundle of systemic reforms usually associated with the concept in the literature and more a surprisingly detailed model of a new actor – the lifelong learner. [less ▲]

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See detailOver-educating the World? Exploring a Taboo in the International Development Discourse.
Zapp, Mike UL

Scientific Conference (2014)

Mass education is now a worldwide feature of modern nation-states. This is true for primary and secondary education and increasingly for higher education and more recently lifelong learning. Strongly ... [more ▼]

Mass education is now a worldwide feature of modern nation-states. This is true for primary and secondary education and increasingly for higher education and more recently lifelong learning. Strongly standardized forms of school organization, curriculum and educational purposes have spread rapidly throughout the world often highly detached from local realities and with clear signs of over-education, which can only be explained if education is understood as an ideology promoted at the world cultural level by international organizations. These are the main tenets of neoinstitutionalist world polity research on global educational expansion and will serve as a theoretical frame for this paper, which is based on qualitative analysis of education documents from a wide array of international organizations. [less ▲]

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See detailLa integración social en América Latina: Más profunda y más conflictiva?
Zapp, Mike UL

Scientific Conference (2013)

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See detailLa mondialisation de l'éducation: comment les organisations internationales definissent l'agenda politique mondial de l'"apprentissage tout au long de la vie
Zapp, Mike UL

Scientific Conference (2013)

Tandis qu'au cours des années 1970 les concepts d'"éducation permanente" (Conseil de l'Europe), d'"éducation tout au long de la vie" (UNESCO) et d'"éducation recurrente" (OECD) étaient considérés en vue ... [more ▼]

Tandis qu'au cours des années 1970 les concepts d'"éducation permanente" (Conseil de l'Europe), d'"éducation tout au long de la vie" (UNESCO) et d'"éducation recurrente" (OECD) étaient considérés en vue de la mise en oeuvre d'une nouvelle politique d'éducation, aujourd'hui, l'"apprentissage tout au long de la vie" a remplacé ces derniers et est devenu un terme emblématique proposé par une multitude d'acteurs politiques et éducatifs dans le monde entier. Malgré cette unanimité sur le mot choisi, les définitions, les interprétations et les politiques associées à ce concept diffèrent considérablement d'un acteur à l'autre. Parmi ces acteurs, les organisations internationales jouent un rôle de plus en plus important. En analysant quantitativement et qualitativement plus d'une centaine de documents et projets de 55 organisations actives dans la diffusion de "l'apprentissage tout au long de la vie", cette étude a pour objectif d'identifier les différentes positions, qui sont parfois très conflictuelles. En nous basant sur des prémisses du néoinstitutionalisme sociologique, nous montrerons que certaines de ces organisations – notamment la Banque Mondiale, l'UNESCO, l'OECD et l'Union Européenne – se font concurrence et aspirent à remplir la fonction de théoricien principal en dominant le discours mondial et l'agenda politique [less ▲]

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See detailGlobalizing and Regionalizing Lifelong Learning - International Organizations' Role in the Diffusion of Lifelong
Zapp, Mike UL

Scientific Conference (2013)

While the 1970s still knew 'permanent education' (Council of Europe), 'recurrent education' (OECD) and 'lifelong education' (UNESCO), over the past 20 years, 'lifelong learning (LLL)' has become the ... [more ▼]

While the 1970s still knew 'permanent education' (Council of Europe), 'recurrent education' (OECD) and 'lifelong education' (UNESCO), over the past 20 years, 'lifelong learning (LLL)' has become the single buzz word and catch-all term for reform in above all (pre-) primary, higher and adult education in both national and international education policy making. Both highly industrialized and less industrialized countries embrace the term, in many cases motivated by international and supranational organizations. Yet, literature and empirical investigation on the content of their LLL concepts and their diffusion mechanisms remain, at best, scant. Based on the premises of world polity theory, the paper first wants to demonstrate the worldwide diffusion of concepts of lifelong learning as found in national education reports and international organizations' statements. It then sheds light on the particular lifelong learning positions in the concepts of the European Union, the World Bank and UNESCO. Particular attention will be given to international organizations as 'theorists' or 'norm catalysts' in applying cognitive and normative diffusion mechanisms. [less ▲]

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See detailGlobalizing Lifelong Learning - International Organizations' Strategies of Lifelong Learning
Zapp, Mike UL

Scientific Conference (2012)

While the 1970s still knew 'permanent education' (Council of Europe), 'recurrent education' (OECD) and 'lifelong education' (UNESCO), over the past 20 years, 'lifelong learning' has become the single buzz ... [more ▼]

While the 1970s still knew 'permanent education' (Council of Europe), 'recurrent education' (OECD) and 'lifelong education' (UNESCO), over the past 20 years, 'lifelong learning' has become the single buzz word and catch-all term for reform in above all (pre-) primary, higher and adult education in both national and international education policy making. Both highly industrialized and less industrialized countries embrace the term, in many cases motivated by international and supranational organizations. Yet, literature and empirical investigation on the concepts, models and strategies those organizations promulgate and pursue remains, at best, scant. The paper first wants to demonstrate the worldwide diffusion of concepts of lifelong learning as found in national education reports and international organizations' statements. It then sheds light on the particular lifelong learning positions in the concepts of the European Union, the World Bank and UNESCO. Additionally, national development agencies' position towards lifelong learning will be assessed since it constitutes one specific type of international policy making. Particular attention will be given to trends of convergence and divergence in international organizations' concepts and implementation strategies of lifelong learning, especially in light of highly different socioeconomic and sociocultural conditions of industrialized and less industrialized countries. [less ▲]

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See detailMuslime in der Psychotherapie – Ein kultursensibler Ratgeber
Zapp, Mike UL; Rezapour, Hamid

Book published by Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht (2011)

Detailed reference viewed: 41 (2 UL)
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See detailTheorizing Global Social Policy: A Research Agenda
Zapp, Mike UL

Scientific Conference (2010)

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See detailTheories of National Social Policy in Light of Emerging Global Social Policy Patterns
Zapp, Mike UL

Bachelor/master dissertation (2009)

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (7 UL)