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See detailCompetition and Workplace Bullying. The moderating role of passive avoidant leadership style.
Sischka, Philipp UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

Scientific Conference (2018, November 02)

The aim of the study was to test if competition is a potential risk factor for the occurrence of workplace bullying and if this association depends on the level of passive avoidant leadership style. We ... [more ▼]

The aim of the study was to test if competition is a potential risk factor for the occurrence of workplace bullying and if this association depends on the level of passive avoidant leadership style. We proposed that competition and passive avoidant leadership style are positive related to workplace bullying exposure and perpetration. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the effect of competition on workplace bullying exposure and perpetration is moderated through passive avoidant leadership style. An online survey design was employed and data were collected among U.S. employees. The final sample consists of 1,408 respondents. Workplace bullying exposure and perpetration were cross-sectionally assessed via self-labeling and behavioral experience method. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that competition and passive avoidant leadership style are important predictors for workplace bullying exposure and perpetration. Furthermore, the results indicated that the effect of competition on workplace bullying exposure (measured via behavioral method) and self-labeled workplace bullying exposure and perpetration is moderated through passive avoidant leadership style. However, for workplace bullying perpetration (measured via behavioral method) no moderation effect was found. The findings underline the importance of the supervisor’s behavior in the occurrence of workplace bullying. Organizations may decrease workplace bullying incidents by training their supervisors to apply a more constructive leadership style. [less ▲]

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See detailThe WHO-5 Well-Being Index – Testing measurement invariance across 33 countries
Sischka, Philipp UL

Scientific Conference (2018, September 15)

In recent years, several studies have stressed out the importance to guarantee the comparability of theoretical constructs (i.e. measurement invariance) in the compared units (e.g., groups or time points ... [more ▼]

In recent years, several studies have stressed out the importance to guarantee the comparability of theoretical constructs (i.e. measurement invariance) in the compared units (e.g., groups or time points) in order to conduct comparative analyses (e.g. Harkness, Van de Vijver, & Mohler, 2003; Meredith, 1993; Vandenberg, & Lance, 2000). If one does not test for measurement invariance (MI) or ignores lack of invariance, differences between groups in the latent constructs cannot be unambiguously attributed to ‘real’ differences or to differences in the measurement attributes. The five-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5) is a frequently used brief standard measure in cross-cultural large-scale clinical studies (Topp, Østergaard, Søndergaard, & Bech, 2015). However, MI as a prerequisite for cross-country comparisons remains untested to date. We performed multigroup confirmatory factor analyses (MGCFA) and the alignment method (Asparouhov & Muthén, 2014) to test the WHO-5 for MI across 33 countries and for cross-time MI over five years. Analyses were based on data of the 2010 and 2015 waves from the European Working Condition survey (EWCS). The EWCS collected data via computer-aided personal interviews in a sample of 41,870 employees and self-employed individuals (wave 2010; wave 2015: 41,290) from the EU28 countries as well as Norway, Switzerland, Albania, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Turkey. MGCFA indicated metric MI and lack of scalar MI of the WHO-5. The alignment method revealed several non-invariant parameters across countries. We estimated latent mean differences between countries with the scalar and the alignment method. The results corroborate the need to use latent variable modeling and to account for non-invariant parameters when mean levels are of concern. Furthermore, the poor performance of some items in some countries has to be considered. [less ▲]

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See detailHow working conditions influence work-related anger
Steffgen, Georges UL; Sischka, Philipp UL

Scientific Conference (2018, July 13)

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See detailPsychological contact violation or basic need frustration? Psychological mechanisms behind the effects of workplace bullying.
Sischka, Philipp UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

Scientific Conference (2018, July 12)

Workplace bullying is a serious phenomenon that has serious detrimental effects on victim’s health, attitudes, and work-related behavior. However, research that examines the mechanisms behind these ... [more ▼]

Workplace bullying is a serious phenomenon that has serious detrimental effects on victim’s health, attitudes, and work-related behavior. However, research that examines the mechanisms behind these relations is still sparse. Two theories that may explain the links between workplace bullying and various negative outcomes are social exchange theory and self-determination theory. Drawing on these theories, we hypothesized that the relationship between workplace bullying and various outcomes is mediated by perceptions of psychological contract violation and the frustration of basic psychological needs (i.e. autonomy, competence, relatedness). Therefore, the aim of our study was to test these mediators separately and simultaneously to see whether they have an incremental mediation effect between workplace bullying and well-being, work satisfaction, engagement, performance, burnout, workplace deviance and turnover intentions. An online survey design was employed and data were collected among U.S. employees. The final sample consists of 1,408 respondents (56.6% females, n=798, age: M=37.3, SD =10.4). Single mediation analysis within a structural equation modeling framework revealed that psychological contract violation acted as a mediator for all outcome variables. Furthermore, basic need frustrations were also meaningfully mediators between workplace bullying and all outcomes, but different need frustration were differently linked with them. The multiple mediation analyses mainly supported the hypothesized importance of the mediators for the different outcomes. The study findings advance the field through identifying the most important mediators between workplace bullying and several outcome variables guiding possible interventions. [less ▲]

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See detailWorkplace bullying: Validation of a measurement and the role of competition, passive avoidant leadership style, psychological contract violation and basic need frustration.
Sischka, Philipp UL

Doctoral thesis (2018)

Workplace bullying, mobbing or harassment describe a situation where an employee is the target of systematic mistreatment by other organizational members (i.e., colleagues, supervisors, subordinates) that ... [more ▼]

Workplace bullying, mobbing or harassment describe a situation where an employee is the target of systematic mistreatment by other organizational members (i.e., colleagues, supervisors, subordinates) that may cause severe social, psychological and psychosomatic problems in the targeted employee. Since the appearance of the book “The harassed worker” by Brodsky (1976) and initial studies by Heinz Leymann (1986, 1990), workplace bullying research has developed into a huge and still massively growing research area that is conducted all over the globe. Especially, when related concepts are considered, a vast amount of studies have researched prevalence, risk factors, consequences, and, very recently, psychological mechanisms of workplace bullying exposure. A literature review revealed that existing workplace bullying exposure self-report inventories exhibit some weaknesses. Therefore, the first study (Chapter 2) aimed to develop a new short scale, the Luxembourg Workplace Mobbing Scale (LWMS) in three different language versions (i.e., Luxembourgish, French, German). Furthermore, it investigated the psychometric properties and the validity of this scale and examined if the three language versions exhibit measurement invariance. The LWMS revealed good psychometric properties in terms of its internal consistency and its factor structure. Furthermore, metric and partial scalar invariance across the three language versions could be established. Initial validation tests revealed high criterion validity of the LWMS. In line with recent workplace bullying exposure research, the LWMS was meaningfully linked with other working factors and measures of psychological health. The second study (Chapter 3) aimed to test the LWMS’s factor structure and measurement invariance across possible risk groups of bullying exposure (i.e., gender, age, and occupational groups). Moreover, based on recent theories and findings on workplace bullying the study aimed to further elucidate the LWMS’s nomological net with relevant psychological (i.e., psychological well-being, work engagement, sleeping hours, suicidal thoughts) and physiological health measures (i.e., physiological health problems, alcohol and smoking consumption, body mass index) as well as with important organizational criteria (i.e., work performance, turnover intention, absenteeism) and with self-labeling victim status. Evaluation of different measurement invariance models confirm metric and (partial) scalar invariance across all compared groups. Neither age, gender, nor the most frequent areas of occupation in Luxembourg represent important risk factors for workplace bullying exposure. Regarding criterion validity, with the exceptions of alcohol and smoking consumption, all proposed psychological and physiological health measures as well as organizational criteria are meaningfully associated with the LWMS. In summary, the LWMS is especially useful, when the identification of workplace bullying exposure risk groups or cross-cultural research is of concern. The third study (Chapter 4) aimed to test specific organizational risk factors of the occurrence of workplace bullying. Specifically, competition and passive avoidant leadership style were tested as risk factors of workplace bullying (exposure and perpetration) assessed with two assessment methods (behavioral experience and self-labeling method). Consistent with theoretical reasoning and prior research, results demonstrated that competition as well as passive avoidant leadership style are important risk factors of workplace bullying exposure. Moreover, results showed that the same effects showed up for perpetration. Even more interesting, passive avoidant leadership style acted as a moderator on the effect of competition on workplace bullying exposure. In line with theory, competition is stronger related to workplace bullying exposure, when passive avoidant leadership is high. Thus, passive avoidant leadership style can be considered a disruptive factor reinforcing the negative association with competition. Regarding workplace bullying perpetration the same moderation effect was only found for the self-labeled assessment method. The fourth study (Chapter 5) aimed to identify different psychological mechanisms (i.e., psychological contract violation and frustration of basic needs) that link being target of workplace bullying and health, attitudinal and behavioral outcomes. Furthermore, their relative impact and importance on different outcomes were highlighted. Psychological contract violation was an important mediator for decreased job satisfaction and higher turnover intentions, whereas frustration of autonomy mediated the effect between workplace bullying exposure and increased levels of burnout, frustration of competence mediated the effect of bullying exposure on decreased work performance and frustration of relatedness was strongly associated with decreased well-being and vigor. Results showed that feelings of psychological contract violation and frustration of basic needs accounted for unique variation in many outcome variables, pointing to the individual contribution of both psychological mechanisms. The present thesis deepens our understanding of the organizational circumstances under which workplace bullying is more likely and the psychological mechanisms that link the bullying exposure with several outcomes. These results can guide possible prevention and intervention strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailCompetition and Workplace Bullying. The moderating role of passive avoidant leadership style.
Sischka, Philipp UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

Scientific Conference (2018, June 06)

It has been argued that an organizational climate that is characterized by competition and envy may increase workplace bullying (Salin, 2003, 2015; Vartia, 1996). Employees may be tempted to gain a ... [more ▼]

It has been argued that an organizational climate that is characterized by competition and envy may increase workplace bullying (Salin, 2003, 2015; Vartia, 1996). Employees may be tempted to gain a relative advantage over their colleagues by setting them under pressure, isolating them, undermining or sabotaging their work (Kohn, 1992; Ng, 2017, Salin, 2003), in sum trying to bully them. This should be especially true, when supervisor exhibit a passive avoidant leadership style that is when supervisor are physically in post but fail to carry out their duties (Hoel, Glasø, Hetland, Cooper, & Einarsen, 2010). Therefore, the aim of our study was to test if competition is a potential risk factor for workplace bullying and if this association depends on the level of passive avoidant leadership style. We proposed that competition and passive avoidant leadership style are positive related to workplace bullying victimization and perpetration. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the effect of competition on workplace bullying victimization and perpetration is moderated through passive avoidant leadership style. Amazon Mechanical Turk was used to recruited employees. We followed recent recommendations using MTurk as participant recruiting system (Keith et al., 2017), e.g., prescreening for desired target population, fair payment (i.e. US$0.10 per estimated minute of participation; Chandler & Shapiro, 2016) and data screening methods for insufficient effort responding (McGonagle, Huang, & Walsh, 2016). The final sample consists of 1,411 respondents (56.6% females, n = 798). Respondents age ranged from 20 to 73 (M = 37.3; SD = 10.4). As the self-labelling method and the behavioral method to assess workplace bullying both have its shortcomings (Nielsen, Notelaers, & Einarsen, 2011), both approaches were used. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that competition and passive avoidant leadership style are important predictor for workplace bullying victimization and perpetration. Furthermore, the results indicated that the effect of competition on workplace bullying victimization (measured via behavioral method) and self-labelled workplace bullying victimization and perpetration is moderated through passive avoidant leadership style. However, for workplace bullying perpetration (measured via behavioral method) no moderation effect was found. These findings have important implications for employers that seek to end workplace bullying in their organization. The present study contributes to the workplace bullying literature in at least two ways. First, while recent research has focused on the main effects of competition (e.g., Salin, 2003) and passive avoidant leadership (e.g., Skogstad et al., 2007) on workplace bullying, the present study sheds light on the moderation effect of passive avoidant leadership style on the effect of competition on workplace bullying. Second, not only workplace bullying victimization but also perpetration is considered, that is still an under-researched topic. [less ▲]

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See detailDigitalisierung der Arbeit in Luxemburg - Teil 3
Sischka, Philipp UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

Arbeitnehmer unterscheiden sich hinsichtlich dem Grad durch den ihre Arbeit von der Digitalisierung betroffen ist sowie durch die Auswirkungen, die die Digitalisierung auf ihre Arbeit und ihr Arbeits(er ... [more ▼]

Arbeitnehmer unterscheiden sich hinsichtlich dem Grad durch den ihre Arbeit von der Digitalisierung betroffen ist sowie durch die Auswirkungen, die die Digitalisierung auf ihre Arbeit und ihr Arbeits(er)leben haben. Arbeitnehmer, deren Arbeit stärker durch die Digitalisierung beeinflusst ist, erleben tendenziell mehr Partizipation, Feedback und Autonomie auf ihrer Arbeit. Gleichzeitig weisen sie auch mehr emotionale und mentale Anforderungen, sowie mehr Zeitdruck auf. Arbeitnehmer, deren Arbeit nur in geringem Maß von der Digitalisierung betroffen ist, sind dagegen weniger von emotionalen und mentalen Anforderungen, sowie von Zeitdruck, Konkurrenz und Mobbing betroffen. Insbesondere die geringere Planbarkeit von Arbeitszeit und Freizeit sowie die stärkere Überwachung und Kontrolle der Arbeitsleistung sind negative Konsequenzen der Digitalisierung, die zu einem verstärkten Erleben von emotionalen und mentalen Anforderungen sowie von Zeitdruck, Konkurrenz und Mobbing führt. Die Möglichkeit durch die Digitalisierung auch von zuhause oder von unterwegs arbeiten zu können führt einerseits zu mehr wahrgenommener Autonomie, andererseits ist dieses Potenzial der Digitalisierung auch mit negativen Konsequenzen verknüpft (z.B. erhöhter Zeitdruck). [less ▲]

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See detailDigitalisierung der Arbeit in Luxemburg - Teil 2
Sischka, Philipp UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

Arbeitnehmer mit höherer formaler Bildung sowie Arbeitnehmer, die als Manager und Führungskräfte, in akademischen Berufen, als Techniker und als Bürokräfte arbeiten, berichten eher von einer gestiegenen ... [more ▼]

Arbeitnehmer mit höherer formaler Bildung sowie Arbeitnehmer, die als Manager und Führungskräfte, in akademischen Berufen, als Techniker und als Bürokräfte arbeiten, berichten eher von einer gestiegenen Entscheidungsfreiheit, von geringerer körperlicher Belastung, von mehr Aufgaben, von der Notwendigkeit ständiger Weiterentwicklung der eigenen Fähigkeiten sowie einer erhöhten Arbeitsleistung durch die Digitalisierung. Insbesondere Hilfsarbeitskräfte geben seltener an sowohl von den Vorteilen aus auch von den Nachteilen der Digitalisierung betroffen zu sein. Differenziert nach Geschlecht oder nach Alter ergeben sich oft nur geringfügige Unterschiede. [less ▲]

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See detailDigitalisierung der Arbeit in Luxemburg - Teil 1
Sischka, Philipp UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

Die Digitalisierung steht derzeit im Fokus der öffentlichen und politischen Debatte. Im Folgenden wird dargestellt, wie Arbeitnehmer in Luxemburg ihre Arbeit durch die Digitalisierung beeinflusst sehen ... [more ▼]

Die Digitalisierung steht derzeit im Fokus der öffentlichen und politischen Debatte. Im Folgenden wird dargestellt, wie Arbeitnehmer in Luxemburg ihre Arbeit durch die Digitalisierung beeinflusst sehen. Hierbei werden die verschiedenen Formen der Digitalisierung sowie die Angst durch den technischen Fortschritt seinen Arbeitsplatz zu verlieren näher beleuchtet. Manager und Führungskräfte, Arbeitnehmer in akademischen Berufen, Techniker sowie Bürokräfte konstatieren einen starken Einfluss der Digitalisierung auf ihre Arbeit. Diese Einschätzung fällt für Arbeitnehmer in Dienstleistungs- und in Handwerksberufen sowie für Bedienern von Anlagen und Hilfsarbeitskräfte moderater aus. Während Manager und Führungskräfte, sowie Arbeitnehmer in akademischen Berufen vor allem die Bedeutung von elektronischer Kommunikation und unterstützender elektronischer Geräte hervorheben, kommt für Techniker und Arbeitnehmer in Handwerksberufen auch noch das Arbeiten mit computergesteuerten Maschinen oder Robotern hinzu. Die mit der Digitalisierung und dem technischen Fortschritt häufig debattierte Angst vor Arbeitsplatzverlust ist insgesamt moderat ausgeprägt. Etwas stärker ist diese bei Arbeitnehmern der Altersgruppe ab 35 Jahren sowie bei Bedienern von Anlagen und Bürokräften ausgeprägt. [less ▲]

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See detailFurther Evidence for Criterion Validity and Measurement Invariance of the Luxembourg Workplace Mobbing Scale
Sischka, Philipp UL; Schmidt, Alexander F.; Steffgen, Georges UL

in European Journal of Psychological Assessment (2018)

Workplace mobbing has various negative consequences for targeted individuals and are costly to organizations. At present it is debated whether gender, age, or occupation are potential risk factors ... [more ▼]

Workplace mobbing has various negative consequences for targeted individuals and are costly to organizations. At present it is debated whether gender, age, or occupation are potential risk factors. However, empirical data remain inconclusive as measures of workplace mobbing so far lack of measurement invariance (MI) testing – a prerequisite for meaningful manifest between-group comparisons. To close this research gap, the present study sought to further elucidate MI of the recently developed brief Luxembourg Workplace Mobbing Scale (LWMS; Steffgen, Sischka, Schmidt, Kohl, & Happ, 2016) across gender, age, and occupational groups and to test whether these factors represent important risk factors of workplace mobbing. Furthermore, we sought to expand data on criterion validity of the LWMS with different self-report criterion measures such as psychological health (e.g., work-related burnout, suicidal thoughts), physiological health problems, organizational behavior (i.e., subjective work performance, turnover intention, and absenteeism), and with a self-labeling mobbing index. Data were collected via computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI) in a representative sample of 1,480 employees working in Luxembourg (aged from 16 to 66; 45.7% female). Confirmatory factor analyses revealed scalar MI across gender and occupation as well as partial scalar invariance across age groups. None of these factors impacted on the level of workplace mobbing. Correlation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses strongly support the criterion validity of the LWMS. Due to its briefness while at the same time being robust against language, age, gender, and occupational group factors and exhibiting meaningful criterion validity, the LWMS is particularly attractive for large-scale surveys as well as for single-case assessment and, thus, general percentile norms are reported in the Electronic Supplementary Materials. [less ▲]

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See detailWorking conditions and work-related anger: A longitudinal perspective
Steffgen, Georges UL; Sischka, Philipp UL

Scientific Conference (2017, November 24)

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See detailTesting measurement invariance in a confirmatory factor analysis framework – State of the art
Sischka, Philipp UL

Scientific Conference (2017, August 31)

In recent years, several studies have stressed out the importance to guarantee the comparability of theoretical constructs (i.e. measurement invariance) in the compared units (e.g., groups or time points ... [more ▼]

In recent years, several studies have stressed out the importance to guarantee the comparability of theoretical constructs (i.e. measurement invariance) in the compared units (e.g., groups or time points) in order to conduct comparative analyses (e.g. Harkness, Van de Vijver, & Mohler, 2003; Meredith, 1993; Vandenberg, & Lance, 2000). If one does not test for measurement invariance (MI) or ignores lack of invariance, differences between groups in the latent constructs cannot be unambiguously attributed to ‘real’ differences or to differences in the measurement attributes. One approach to test for MI is in a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) framework. The presentation will be about new developments in the MI-CFA framework. Among other things, the presentation tries to answer the following questions: • Which scale setting method to use (marker variable, fixed factor or effect coding method) when testing for MI? • Should a top-down- or bottom-up-approach be used? • How to test MI with a large number of groups (>30)? • What are the possibilities to evaluate whether MI exists (e.g., statistical significance of the change in chi-square after Bonferroni adjustment, changes in approximate fit statistics, magnitude of difference between the parameter estimates)? • How to determine confidence intervals for fit indices? • Can MI be graphically analyzed? • How can be dealt with non-invariance? These questions will be tried to answered by an application to a real world dataset (N ~ 40.000), with a one-factor/five indicator model of a well-being scale tested in 35 groups. [less ▲]

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See detailArbeitsmotivation von Arbeitnehmern in Luxemburg
Sischka, Philipp UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

E-print/Working paper (2017)

Die europäische Studie EWCS (Eurofund, 2016a, 2016b) zeigt auf, dass sich die Arbeitsmotivation der Arbeitnehmer in Luxemburg eher im mittleren Bereich wiederfindet. Die nationale Studie Quality of Work ... [more ▼]

Die europäische Studie EWCS (Eurofund, 2016a, 2016b) zeigt auf, dass sich die Arbeitsmotivation der Arbeitnehmer in Luxemburg eher im mittleren Bereich wiederfindet. Die nationale Studie Quality of Work Index belegt nur geringfügige Unterschiede der Arbeitsmotivation sowohl zwischen männlichen und weiblichen Arbeitnehmern als auch zwischen den verschiedenen Altersgruppen. Arbeitnehmer in einer Vorgesetztenposition, Manager und Führungskräfte zeigen im Durchschnitt eine höhere, Hilfsarbeitskräfte dagegen im Durchschnitt eine geringere Arbeitsmotivation. Überdurchschnittlich motiviert erweisen sich Arbeitnehmer in Nichtregierungsorganisationen (NGO). Die Arbeitsmotivation ist dabei mit verschiedenen psychosozialen Abeitsbedingungen sowie Arbeitsrahmenbedingungen korreliert. Parizipation an Entscheidungen, Feedback von Kollegen und Vorgesetzten, Kooperation unter Kollegen sowie Rollenklarheit sind positiv mit Arbeitsmotivation assoziert, das Erleben von Konkurrenz und Mobbing sind hingegen negativ assoziiert. Hinsichtlich Arbeitsrahmenbedingungen weist vor allem Arbeitsplatzsicherheit einen hohen Zusammenhang mit der Arbeitsmotivation auf, gefolgt von Einkommenszufriedenheit und Ausbildungsmöglichkeiten. [less ▲]

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See detailGesundheitsverhalten von Arbeitnehmern in Luxemburg
Sischka, Philipp UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

E-print/Working paper (2017)

Insbesonders unter den jüngeren Arbeitnehmern und unter den Arbeitnehmern mit geringer Bildung ist der Anteil der Raucher vergleichsweise hoch. Männliche und ältere Arbeitnehmer weisen wieder einen ... [more ▼]

Insbesonders unter den jüngeren Arbeitnehmern und unter den Arbeitnehmern mit geringer Bildung ist der Anteil der Raucher vergleichsweise hoch. Männliche und ältere Arbeitnehmer weisen wieder einen vergleichsweise hohen Alkoholkonsum auf. Differenziert nach Berufsgruppen zeigen vor allem Arbeitnehmer in Handwerksberufen sowie Manager und Führungskräfte einen hohen Alkoholkonsum. Die Arbeitnehmer in der jüngsten Altersgruppe (16 bis 24 Jährige) schlafen durchschnittlich etwas länger, im Vergleich zu den älteren Arbeitnehmern. Außerdem ist die Sporthäufigkeit in der jüngsten Altersgruppe am höchsten. Männliche Arbeitnehmer sowie Arbeitnehmer ohne Partner oder ohne Kinder treiben ebenfalls überduchschnittlich häufig Sport. Etwa 17% der Arbeitnehmer leidet unter Adipositas. Knapp 30% der Arbeitnehmer leidet manchmal oder häufiger an gesundheitlichen Problemen. Unter den gesundheitlichen Problemen sind Rückenprobleme besonders häufig, gefolgt von Schlafschwierigkeiten und Kopfschmerzen. Herzprobleme sind dagegen eher selten ausgeprägt. Arbeitnehmer mit Hochschulabschluss sowie Manager und Führungskräfte sind seltener von Gesundheitsproblemen betroffen. Gesundheitliche Probleme sind insgesamt mit Zigarettenkonsum, Schlafstunden pro Tag, Sporthäufigkeit und Body Mass Index assoziiert: Je weniger geraucht wird, je mehr geschlafen und Sport getrieben wird und je geringer das körperliche Gewicht der Arbeitnehmer, desto weniger Gesundheitsprobleme liegen tendenziell vor. [less ▲]

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See detailTesting measurement Invariance in a CFA framework – State of the art
Sischka, Philipp UL

Poster (2017, March 31)

In recent years, several studies have stressed out the importance to guarantee the comparability of theoretical constructs (i.e. measurement invariance) in the compared units (e.g., groups or time points ... [more ▼]

In recent years, several studies have stressed out the importance to guarantee the comparability of theoretical constructs (i.e. measurement invariance) in the compared units (e.g., groups or time points) in order to conduct comparative analyses (e.g. Harkness, Van de Vijver, & Mohler, 2003; Meredith, 1993; Vandenberg, & Lance, 2000). If one does not test for measurement invariance (MI) or ignores lack of invariance, differences between groups in the latent constructs cannot be unambiguously attributed to ‘real’ differences or to differences in the measurement attributes. One approach to test for MI is in a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) framework. In this framework, MI is usually tested with a series of model comparisons that define more and more stringent equality constraints. The presentation will be about new developments in the MI-CFA framework. Among other things, the presentation tries to answer the following questions: • Which scale setting method to use (marker variable, fixed factor or effect coding method) when testing for MI? • Should a top-down- or bottom-up-approach be used? • How to test MI with a large number of groups (>30)? • What are the possibilities to evaluate whether MI exists (e.g., statistical significance of the ∆² after Bonferroni adjustment, changes in approximate fit statistics, magnitude of difference between the parameter estimates)? • How to determine confidence intervals for fit indices? • Can MI be graphically analyzed? • How can be dealt with non-invariance? These questions will be tried to answered by an application to a real world dataset (N ~ 40.000), with a one-factor/five indicator model of a well-being scale tested in 35 groups. [less ▲]

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See detailThe influence of Forced Answering on response behavior in Online Surveys: A reactance effect?
Sischka, Philipp UL; Mergener, Alexandra; Neufang, Kristina Marliese et al

Poster (2017, March 16)

Relevance: Recent studies have shown that the use of the forced answering (FA) option in online surveys results in reduced data. They especially examined that forcing respondents to answer questions in ... [more ▼]

Relevance: Recent studies have shown that the use of the forced answering (FA) option in online surveys results in reduced data. They especially examined that forcing respondents to answer questions in order to proceed through the questionnaire leads to higher dropout rates and lower answer quality. However, no study researched the psychological mechanism behind the correlation of FA on dropout and data quality before. This response behavior has often been interpreted as psychological reactance reaction. So, the Psychological Reactance Theory (PRT) predicts that reactance appears when an individuals’ freedom is threatened and cannot be directly restored. Reactance describes the motivation to restore this loss of freedom. Respondents could experience FA as a loss of freedom, as (s)he is denied the choice to leave a question unanswered. According to PRT, possible reactions in this situation might be to quit survey participation, to fake answers or to show satisficing tendencies. Research content: This study explores the psychological mechanism that effects response behavior in FA condition (compared to non-FA- condition). Our major hypothesis is that forcing respondents to answer will cause reactance, which turns into increasing dropout rates, decreasing answer quality and a satisficing behavior. Methods and Data: We used an online survey-experiment with two conditions (forced and non-forced answering instructions). The sample consists of 914 participants. Throughout the whole questionnaire, a dropout button was implemented on each page. In both conditions, this button led to the same page that fully compliant participants reached at the end of the questionnaire. Reactance was measured with a self-constructed four-item reactance scale. To determine answer quality, we used self-report for faking as well as the analysis of answers to open ended questions. Results: Zero-order effects showed that FA increased state reactance and questionnaire dropout as well as it reduced answer length in open-ended questions. Mediation analysis (Condition -> state reactance -> dropout/answer quality) supported the hypothesis of reactance as an underlying psychological mechanism behind negative FA effects on data quality. Added Value: This is the first study which offers statistical evidence for the often proposed reactance effect influencing response behavior. This offers a base for a deeper psychological reflection of the use of the FA-option. [less ▲]

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See detailWohlbefinden von Arbeitnehmern in Luxemburg
Sischka, Philipp UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

E-print/Working paper (2017)

Vergleicht man die Teilnehmer der Quality of Work Index Luxembourg Umfrage mit anderen europäischen Arbeitnehmern, zeigen die Teilnehmer aus Luxemburg im Durchschnitt ein geringeres Wohlbefinden ... [more ▼]

Vergleicht man die Teilnehmer der Quality of Work Index Luxembourg Umfrage mit anderen europäischen Arbeitnehmern, zeigen die Teilnehmer aus Luxemburg im Durchschnitt ein geringeres Wohlbefinden. Insbesondere jüngere Arbeitnehmer weisen ein tendenziell geringeres Wohlbefinden auf. Differenziert man die Arbeitnehmer nach Berufsgruppen, zeigen Manager und Führungskräfte, Arbeitnehmer in Dienstleistungsberufen sowie Hilfsarbeitskräfte das höchste Wohlbefinden. Arbeitnehmer mit geringeren faktischen Wochenstundenzahlen sowie Arbeitnehmer, die in kleinen Betrieben (1-4 Beschäftigte) arbeiten, berichten über ein höheres Wohlbefinden. Das Wohlbefinden ist hierbei nachweislich mit unterschiedlichen Arbeitsbedingungen assoziiert. So weisen Arbeitnehmer, je höher ihre Partizipation, ihre Rollenklarheit bei der Arbeit sowie ihre Arbeitsplatzsicherheit ist umso ein höheres Wohlbefinden auf. Das Wohlbefinden ist außerdem positiv mit Arbeitszufriedenheit, wahrgenommenem Respekt bei der Arbeit und negativ mit Stress und Burnout korreliert. [less ▲]

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See detailGetting to the bottom of response behavior when using Forced Answering in Online Surveys
Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL; Mergener, Alexandra; Sischka, Philipp UL et al

Scientific Conference (2017)

Abstract: Recent studies have shown that the use of the forced answering (FA) option in online surveys results in reduced data quality. This response behavior has often been interpreted as psychological ... [more ▼]

Abstract: Recent studies have shown that the use of the forced answering (FA) option in online surveys results in reduced data quality. This response behavior has often been interpreted as psychological reactance reaction. However, no study researched the psychological mechanism behind the correlation of FA on dropout and data quality before. By using online survey-experiments with forced and non-forced answering instructions, our study offers statistical evidence for the often proposed reactance effect influencing response behavior. Relevance: Recent studies have shown that the use of the forced answering (FA) option in online surveys results in reduced data quality. They especially examined that forcing respondents to answer questions in order to proceed through the questionnaire leads to higher dropout rates and lower answer quality. However, no study researched the psychological mechanism behind the correlation of FA on dropout and data quality before. This response behavior has often been interpreted as psychological reactance reaction. So, the Psychological Reactance Theory (PRT) predicts that reactance appears when an individuals’ freedom is threatened and cannot be directly restored. Reactance describes the motivation to restore this loss of freedom. Respondents could experience FA as a loss of freedom, as (s)he is denied the choice to leave a question unanswered. According to PRT, possible reactions in this situation might be to quit survey participation, to fake answers or to show satisficing tendencies. Research content: This study explores the psychological mechanism that effects response behavior in FA condition (compared to non-FA- condition). Our major hypothesis is that forcing respondents to answer will cause reactance, which turns into increasing dropout rates, decreasing answer quality and a satisficing behavior. Methods and Data: We used online survey-experiments with forced and non-forced answering instructions. Reactance was measured with a four-item reactance scale. To determine answer quality, we used self-report for faking as well as the analysis of answers to open ended questions. Results: Zero-order effects showed that FA increased state reactance and questionnaire dropout as well as it reduced answer length in open-ended questions. Mediation analysis supported the hypothesis of reactance as an underlying psychological mechanism behind negative FA effects on data quality. Added Value: This is the first study which offers statistical evidence for the often proposed reactance effect influencing response behavior. This offers a base for a deeper psychological reflection of the use of the FA-option. [less ▲]

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See detailArbeitszeitflexibilität in Luxemburg
Sischka, Philipp UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

E-print/Working paper (2016)

Männliche Arbeitnehmer weisen im Vergleich zu weiblichen Arbeitnehmern eine höhere Differenz zwischen vertraglich vereinbarter und faktischer Wochenarbeitszeit auf. Differenziert nach Berufsgruppen zeigt ... [more ▼]

Männliche Arbeitnehmer weisen im Vergleich zu weiblichen Arbeitnehmern eine höhere Differenz zwischen vertraglich vereinbarter und faktischer Wochenarbeitszeit auf. Differenziert nach Berufsgruppen zeigt sich, dass inbesondere Manager sowie Führungskräfte deutlich mehr arbeiten, als vertraglich festgelegt. Atypische Arbeitszeiten (nach 19 Uhr, nach 22 Uhr oder am Wochenende) treten dagegen insbesondere bei jüngeren Arbeitnehmern (bis 44 Jahre) häufiger auf. Auch zeigen sich hier große Unterschiede über die Berufsgruppen hinweg. Für die Mehrheit der Arbeitnehmer entspricht die vertraglich vereinbarte Stundenzahl ihren Wünschen. Jedoch ist bei den jüngeren Arbeitnehmern der Anteil der Personen, die sich einen Vertrag mit mehr bezahlten Stunden wünschen deutlich höher. Differenziert nach Berufsgruppen äußern vor allem Hilfsarbeitskräfte sowie Arbeitnehmer in Dienstleistungs- und Handwerksberufen den Wunsch mehr bezahlte Stunden zu arbeiten. Die Arbeitszeitbedingungen der Arbeitnehmer weisen auch Zusammenhänge mit erlebten Work-Life-Konflikten, Zeitdruck, Stress und Arbeitszufriedenheit auf. Die Arbeitszeitbedingungen sind außerdem assoziiert mit nächtlichen Schlafstunden sowie mit der Gefährdung durch Burnout. Arbeitnehmer, die 46 Stunden und mehr arbeiten, die häufig atypische Arbeitszeiten haben, oder deren faktische Arbeitszeit stark von der vertraglich vereinbarten Arbeitszeit abweicht, erleben stärker Work-Life-Konflikte, Zeitdruck sowie Stress, geben jedoch eine geringere Arbeitszufriedenheit an, schlafen weniger und weisen eher Burnout auf. [less ▲]

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See detailForced Answering in Online Surveys: Is it really a reactance effect that reduces data quality?
Sischka, Philipp UL; Mergener, Alexandra; Neufang, Kristina Marliese et al

Scientific Conference (2016, October 14)

Online surveys are conducted without adequate attention to implementation details too often. One example is the frequent use of the forced answering (FA) option, which forces the respondent to answer ... [more ▼]

Online surveys are conducted without adequate attention to implementation details too often. One example is the frequent use of the forced answering (FA) option, which forces the respondent to answer questions in order to proceed through the questionnaire. Currently, only a few studies have researched the impact of FA on different quality parameters. Some studies that evaluated the influence of FA on quality parameters (e.g. drop-out or answer quality) hypothesized that FA leads to reactance in the participants indicated by a higher drop-out-rate as well as lower answer quality. However, no study researched the psychological mechanism behind the correlation of FA on dropout and data quality before. Psychological Reactance Theory predicts that reactance appears when an individual’s freedom is threatened and cannot be directly restored. Reactance describes the motivation to restore this loss of freedom. Respondents could experience FA as a loss of freedom, as (s)he is denied the choice to leave a question unanswered. According to Reactance Theory possible reactions in this situation might be to quit survey participation or to fake answers. This study examines the psychological mechanism that explains higher amounts of dropout and faking behavior in FA condition (compared to non-FA- condition). Our major hypothesis is that forcing respondents to answer will cause reactance, which turns into increasing dropout rates and decreasing answer quality. We used split-ballot-field-experiments with a forced and non-forced answering instruction. Reactance was measured with a four-item reactance scale. To determine answer quality, we used self-report for faking. Our Mediation analysis shows that respondents in FA condition report higher amounts of reactance compared to respondents in non-FA condition. In addition to that reactance also is a strong predictor for dropout behavior, faking, or re-participation. Therefore, the influence of FA on quality parameters is mediated through reactance. [less ▲]

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