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See detailInclusive Education: Entwicklungen im internationalen Vergleich
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Sturm, Tanja; Wagner-Willi, Monika (Eds.) Handbuch Schulische Inklusion (in press)

Global, national und lokal wird die hohe und gestiegene Bedeutung formaler Bildung für Gesellschaften und Individuen – und hier auch diejenigen mit besonderem Förderbedarf – hervorgehoben. Durch ... [more ▼]

Global, national und lokal wird die hohe und gestiegene Bedeutung formaler Bildung für Gesellschaften und Individuen – und hier auch diejenigen mit besonderem Förderbedarf – hervorgehoben. Durch Initiativen wie „Education for All“ (UNESCO 2015) sowie die UN-Konvention über die Rechte von Menschen mit Behinderung (UN-BRK, seit 2006), welche inklusive Bildung als Menschenrecht verankert, werden die Themen Inklusion und Sonderpädagogik zunehmend in Bildungspolitik und -praxis weltweit aufgegriffen. Trotz der unbestreitbaren Erfolge in den Bemühungen, allen Kindern den Zugang zu Bildung zu ermöglichen – und somit die schulische Exklusion zu reduzieren –, ist die vollständige schulische Inklusion aller Schülerinnen und Schüler weltweit eine Herausforderung geblieben. Selbst in den nordischen Ländern (Dänemark, Finnland, Island, Norwegen und Schweden), welche vergleichsweise fortgeschrittene inklusive Bildungssysteme etabliert haben, wird inklusive Bildung eher als Prozess und Ziel denn als erreichter Status betrachtet. Wie die Ausweitung des Zugangs zu formalisierter Bildung insgesamt, vollzieht sich der Übergang von Exklusion zu Inklusion im Hinblick auf die Förderorte graduell. In vielen Ländern wird sonderpädagogische Unterstützung in verschiedenen Organisationsformen angeboten, entlang eines Kontinuums von Segregation (Unterricht in unterschiedlichen Gebäuden), über Separation (Unterricht im selben Schulgebäude aber in unterschiedlichen Räumen) und Integration (teilweise gemeinsamer Unterricht) hin zu vollständiger Inklusion (umfassender gemeinsamer Unterricht). Die Überwindung organisationaler Exklusion – in vielen Teilen der Welt noch die alltägliche Realität für Kinder oder Jugendliche mit wahrgenommenen Beeinträchtigungen und Behinderungen – ist demnach nur der erste Schritt hin zur größtmöglichen Teilhabe an formal organisierten Lernmöglichkeiten. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Worldwide Triumph of the Research University and Globalizing Science
Powell, Justin J W UL; Fernandez, Frank; Crist, John T. et al

in International Perspectives on Education & Society (in press), 33

This chapter provides an overview of the findings and chapters of volume 33 in the International Perspectives on Education and Society (IPES) series. It describes the common dataset and methods used by an ... [more ▼]

This chapter provides an overview of the findings and chapters of volume 33 in the International Perspectives on Education and Society (IPES) series. It describes the common dataset and methods used by an international research team. The chapter synthesizes the results of a series of country-level case studies and cross-national and regional comparisons on the growth of scientific research from 1900 until 2011. Additionally, the chapter provides a quantitative analysis of global trends in scientific, peer-reviewed publishing over the same period. The introduction identifies common themes that emerged across the case studies examined in-depth during the multi-year research project Science Productivity, Higher Education, Research Development and the Knowledge Society (SPHERE). First, universities have long been and increasingly are the primary organizations in science production around the globe. Second, the chapters describe in-country and cross-country patterns of competition and collaboration in scientific publications. Third, the chapters describe the national policy environments and institutionalized organizational forms that fostered scientific research. The introduction reviews selected findings and limitations of previous bibliometric studies and explains that the chapters in the volume overcome these limitations by applying neo-institutional theoretical frameworks to analyze bibliometric data over an extensive period. [less ▲]

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See detailThe European Center of Science Productivity: Research Universities and Institutes in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom
Powell, Justin J W UL; Dusdal, Jennifer UL

in International Perspectives on Education & Society (in press), 33

Growth in scientific productivity over the 20th century resulted significantly from three major countries in European science—France, Germany, and the United Kingdom. We chart the development of ... [more ▼]

Growth in scientific productivity over the 20th century resulted significantly from three major countries in European science—France, Germany, and the United Kingdom. We chart the development of universities and research institutes that bolster Europe’s key position in global science. We uncover both stable and dynamic patterns of productivity in the fields of STEM, including health, over the twentieth century. On-going internationalization of higher education and science has been accompanied by increasing competition and collaboration. Despite policy goals to foster innovation and expand research capacity, policies cannot fully account for the differential growth of scientific productivity we chart from 1975 to 2010. Our neoinstitutional framework facilitates explanation of differences in institutional settings, organizational forms, and organizations that produce the most European research. We measure growth of published peer-reviewed articles indexed in Thomson Reuters’ Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE). Organizational forms vary in their contributions, with universities accounting for nearly half but rising in France; ultrastable in Germany at four-fifths, and growing at around two-thirds in the UK. Differing institutionalization pathways created the conditions necessary for continuous, but varying growth in scientific productivity in the European center of global science. The research university is central in all three countries, and we identify organizations leading in research output. Few analyses explicitly compare across time, space, and different levels of analysis. We show how important European science has been to overall global science productivity. In-depth comparisons, especially the organizational fields and forms in which science is produced, are crucial if policy is to support research and development. [less ▲]

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See detailHow does research evaluation impact educational research? Exploring intended and unintended consequences of research assessment in the United Kingdom, 1986–2014
Marques, Marcelo UL; Powell, Justin J W UL; Zapp, Mike UL et al

in European Educational Research Journal (in press)

Research evaluation systems in many countries aim to improve the quality of higher education. Among the first such systems, the UK's Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) from 1986 is now the Research ... [more ▼]

Research evaluation systems in many countries aim to improve the quality of higher education. Among the first such systems, the UK's Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) from 1986 is now the Research Excellence Framework (REF). Highly-institutionalized, it holds research(ers) accountable. While studies describe the effects at different levels, this longitudinal analysis examines the gradual institutionalization and (un)intended consequences from 1986 to 2014. First, we analyze historically RAE/REF's rational, formalization, standardization, and transparency, framing it as a strong research evaluation system. Second, we locate the multidisciplinary field of education, analyzing submission behavior (staff, outputs, funding) of Departments of Education over time. We find: decreases in submitted staff; the research article as preferred publication format; the rise of quantitative analysis; and high and stable concentration of funding among few Departments. Policy instruments invoke varied responses, wit such reactivity shown by the increasing selectivity of submitted staff as a form of reverse engineering and the research article as the preferred output as a self-fulfilling prophecy. The funding concentration manifests an intended consequence, facilitating greater disparities between Departments of Education. These findings emphasize how research assessment impacts the structural organization and cognitive development of educational research in the UK. [less ▲]

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See detailHigher Education Systems and Institutions, Luxembourg
Harmsen, Robert UL; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Shin, J.C.; Teixeira, P. (Eds.) Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions (in press)

Bordered by Belgium, France, and Germany, Luxembourg is one of the three main seats of the European Union’s institutions. The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg sits at the crossroads between Europe’s Germanic and ... [more ▼]

Bordered by Belgium, France, and Germany, Luxembourg is one of the three main seats of the European Union’s institutions. The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg sits at the crossroads between Europe’s Germanic and Francophone language communities. The country has experienced remarkable migratory flows, resulting in an ethnically hyper-diverse and multilingual population. Reflecting this cultural diversity, the educational system at all levels emphasizes language learning. Historically an agrarian society, a century ago it developed a very strong steelmaking industry and over the past decades has witnessed extraordinary growth in its financial services sector. Established to broaden the economic bases of the country, thus reducing overreliance on the steel and banking industries, yet against considerable pecuniary and ideological resistance, the national flagship University of Luxembourg (UL) was founded in 2003 upon initiative of a small group of elite decisionmakers. As a private, government-dependent institution (établissement public) directed by a Board of Governors (Conseil de Gouvernance), the university’s major funding is provided by the state, although its third-party funding has increased rapidly and substantially. Ironically, while spatial mobility is everywhere supported, Luxembourg has invested considerable capital and strategic planning in establishing its own national university. It aims to compete globally by concentrating its intellectual and financial resources and by building on the country’s strengths and priorities. The state took this ambitious step in scientific capacity-building in founding a research-oriented university, in so doing also providing a stay-at-home alternative for Luxembourg’s youth, traditionally educated abroad. The long-standing custom of educating elites in other countries was ostensibly justified by the establishment of cosmopolitan, Europe-wide networks. Today, rising international competition and supranational coordination have increased pressure on Luxembourg to grow its higher education system and thus also foster educational and scientific innovation. The University provides a means to diversify the economy and to integrate citizens from diverse cultural background, while the polity remains dominated by local elites. Oriented towards the Grand Duchy’s unique context—small size, but simultaneously flourishing center of European governance and international business—the University was founded upon the principles of internationality, multilingualism, and interdisciplinarity. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Century of Science: The Global Triumph of the Research University
Powell, Justin J W UL; Baker, David P.; Fernandez, Frank

in International Perspectives on Education & Society (in press), 33

In The Century of Science, a multicultural, international team of authors examines the global rise of scholarly research in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and health (STEM+) fields. At the ... [more ▼]

In The Century of Science, a multicultural, international team of authors examines the global rise of scholarly research in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and health (STEM+) fields. At the beginning of the 20th century, the global center-point of scientific productivity was about half way between Western Europe and the U.S., in the North Atlantic. Then, the center moved steadily westward and slightly southward—reflecting the burgeoning science capacity of the U.S. supported by America’s thriving public and private universities, technological innovation, and overall economic growth. After WWII, this began to change as the course of the world’s scientific center of gravity turned and for the next 70 years traveled eastward, the direction it still travels, especially due to the rise of China and other prolific East Asian countries, such as Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea. Europe continues to be the center of global science. Focusing on these developments, this volume provides historical and sociological understandings of the ways that higher education has become an institution that, more than ever before, shapes science and society. Case studies, supported by the most historically and spatially extensive database on STEM+ publications available, of selected countries in Europe, North America, East Asia, and the Middle East, emphasize recurring themes: the institutionalization and differentiation of higher education systems to the proliferation of university-based scientific research fostered by research policies that support continued university expansion leading to the knowledge society. Growing worldwide, research universities appear to be the most legitimate sites for knowledge production. Countries like France, Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Japan began the 20th century with prerequisites in place to realize the emerging model of university-based research. Over the past several decades, China, South Korea, and Taiwan, with different historical legacies and conflicts in education and research policy, have witnessed explosive growth, sustained by public and private funds. Qatar recently embarked on an ambitious government-driven effort to develop a world-class university sector and cultivate academic STEM+ research from scratch. These more recent entrants to the global scientific enterprise pose the question whether it is possible to leapfrog across decades, or even centuries, of cultivating university systems, to compete globally. Simultaneously with international and regional competition, world-leading science increasingly implies collaboration across cultural and political borders as global scientific production and networking continue to rise exponentially. This volume’s case studies offer new insights into how countries develop the university-based knowledge thought fundamental to meeting social needs and economic demands. Despite repeated warnings that universities would lose in relevance to other organizational forms in the production of knowledge, our findings demonstrate incontrovertibly that universities have become more—not less—important actors in the world of knowledge. The past hundred years have seen the global triumph of the research university. [less ▲]

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See detail(Re)shaping Educational Research through ‘Programification’: Institutional Expansion, Change, and Translation in Norway
Zapp, Mike UL; Helgetun, Jo B.; Powell, Justin J W UL

in European Journal of Education (in press), 52

Educational research in Norway has experienced unprecedented structural expansion as well as cognitive shifts over the past two decades, especially due to increased state investments and the strategic use ... [more ▼]

Educational research in Norway has experienced unprecedented structural expansion as well as cognitive shifts over the past two decades, especially due to increased state investments and the strategic use of extensive and multi-year thematic programs to fund research projects. Applying a neo-institutionalist framework, we examine institutionalization dynamics in cultural-cognitive, normative, and regulative dimensions over the past two decades using interviews, research program calls, policy documents, and funding data. In the cultural-cognitive dimension, we find references to the knowledge society, the importance of evidence in policy-making, and ideas of quality, excellence, and relevance. In the normative dimension, we find the introduction of new professional and methodological standards, reflecting broader global patterns of academic and epistemic drift. In the regulative dimension, the strengthened role of both government and the Research Council of Norway is manifest in substantial growth in both funding and large-scale, long-term planning, including thematic choices—evidence of ‘programification’. The importance of external models has grown in an era of internationalization, yet translation occurs at every level of governance of educational research. This results in a specific Norwegian research model, guided by a mode of governance of programs, that maintains social values traditionally strong in Nordic societies. [less ▲]

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See detailDis/Ability Studies in the Universal Design University
Powell, Justin J W UL; Pfahl, Lisa

in Gertz, SunHee; Huang, Betsy; Cyr, Lauren (Eds.) Diversity and Inclusion in Higher Education and Societal Contexts: International and Interdisciplinary Approaches (in press)

Universities are among the most durable and successful institutions globally. However, inclusive higher education remains an elusive goal, despite the worldwide ratification of the UN Convention on the ... [more ▼]

Universities are among the most durable and successful institutions globally. However, inclusive higher education remains an elusive goal, despite the worldwide ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities that mandates inclusive education throughout the life course—and thus increased access to universities. In many countries, universities attempt to implement elements of a universal design university, built to serve diverse student bodies, that will be more fully inclusive. To do so, universities must implement principles of universal design and inclusive education. Enhancing accessibility requires the removal of myriad cultural and structural barriers and reduced ableism in the academy itself. In embracing social and political paradigms of disability, especially through the multidisciplinary field of dis/ability studies, universities can give voice to diverse participants as they engage and change awareness and attitudes. This contribution addresses both activities that facilitate the development of dis/ability studies and barriers that hinder its (multi)disciplinary flourishing. In contemporary developments in the German-speaking countries—Austria, Germany, Luxembourg, and Switzerland—this multidisciplinary field engages intellectuals and activists to subversively cross disciplinary, institutional, and political divides. Relying on collaboration among members of the disability (rights) movement, advocates, and academics to develop its subversive status, the field emphasizes the subversive status necessary to realize inclusive higher education in the universal design university. [less ▲]

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See detailThis Country Has the Real Apprentice: Germany’s approach to worker training allows people to enjoy a middle-class lifestyle.
Schuetze, Christopher F.; Powell, Justin J W UL; Fortwengel, Johann

Diverse speeches and writings (2017)

WUPPERTAL, Germany — Edgar Wingert, a 39-year-old-year material specialist, had always wanted a career in the German military. But when, after nearly a year in the service, his relatively poor eyesight ... [more ▼]

WUPPERTAL, Germany — Edgar Wingert, a 39-year-old-year material specialist, had always wanted a career in the German military. But when, after nearly a year in the service, his relatively poor eyesight forced him to abandon his dream career, he went to work as an untrained worker in the local paper mill. After the financial crisis hit and he was laid off, Wingert thought for the first time about doing his "Ausbildung," the German name for the professional training approach that involves both theoretical learning and on-the-job training – an apprenticeship. Passing both would get him his journeyman's letter, the technical qualification that allows millions of Germans without a university degree to do challenging and rewarding work, earn a good income and know that they can easily find new work, if they are laid off or otherwise want to leave their employers. "By the time I started thinking about doing an apprenticeship, I was 30 and it was too late," he says, taking a break from cleaning the laser printing nozzle used to inscribe the name of the German manufacturer Knipex onto the insulating grip on hundreds of pliers stacked neatly in boxes by his side. Germany, which is currently enjoying its lowest unemployment rate in 37 years, is well known for a system of standardized, superior training qualifications, which allow primarily young people to train and get recognized for specific jobs. In Germany, everything from selling cars to building pianos and harpsichords has its own practical technical schooling, testing and qualifications. It is a system that experts say allows a highly capable workforce to earn middle-class wages, enjoy job security and bring a high level of expertise to jobs that increasingly rely on more than just muscle, nimble fingers and endurance. "The key to the success of the German model is interlocking of practical training and theoretical learning," says professor Justin J.W. Powell at the University of Luxembourg, who has studied apprenticeship systems both in German and the United States. Worker training will surely be discussed at the July 7-8 summit of Group of 20 leading rich and developing nations, which will be held in the northern German port city of Hamburg. Much of the media attention will focus on Trump's meeting with Russian leader Vladimir Putin, and on climate change, where the American leader has departed from allies by announcing his country's withdrawal from the Paris climate accords. But economic issues such as trade remain the heart of the G20's work, and worker training is a major issue for wealthy nations, whose aging populations continue to grapple with rapidly changing economic currents. Training is a hot topic in many countries. In the United States, for example, debate is intensifying over how best to create jobs for adults lacking a four-year college degree. Despite U.S. President Donald Trump's criticism of Germany and its trade practices, he announced a boosting of the apprenticeship programs that many experts say is an attempt to emulate Germany's success in closing the so-called skills gap – the gulf between companies' need for a high-trained workforce and the job seekers who are not adequately trained for the jobs on offer. "For decades, Germany has been a model for highly successful apprenticeship – that's a name I like, apprentice – apprenticeship programs," Trump reportedly said during a roundtable discussion with the chancellor of Germany, Angela Merkel. Wingert's big chance to do a formal apprenticeship came in 2012, when Knipex, the company he still works for, offered him and some of his colleagues the chance to get trained. He would be excused from the factory floor for a week each month to pursue a yearlong course that, after a series of two written tests and one practical test, would earn him the official title of machine and systems operator. That professional qualification allows him to apply to higher-paying jobs in the factory, but also lets him more easily enter other manufacturing businesses at a higher pay. The cost of the tuition at the trade college and the 12 weeks of missed work are payed by the federal employment office under a program designed to train older adults. In 2015 the program helped train more than 24,000 people in Germany all over at a cost of roughly 180 million euros, or about $206 million. "You should see what it means for people to get the letter of acceptance," says Sandra Urspruch, a member of the company's human resources department. "It's like getting the golden ticket." At Knipex less than 40 percent of those working on the factory floor have professional qualifications. The balance, who are untrained, execute relatively straightforward tasks on pre-set machines and pre-determined routines; they are more likely to be let go if orders decrease. A fairly typical story of German prowess in small and mid-sized manufacturing companies, Knipex was founded in the second half of the 19th century, well after the industrial revolution had reached the German Ruhr-area, still the heartland of the biggest manufacturing economy in Europe. The Knipex factory, a sprawling series of buildings and halls that now employs about 800 workers who make about 45,000 pliers a day, stands on the site of the original factory, where the founder, who was the current director's great grandfather, was making about 120 pliers a day. Despite its history, the plier factory is aggressively modern. Robots now handle some of the heavy industrial forges. Most of the factory halls are lit with natural light. Small glass-enclosed cabinets ensure that smokers do not affect the indoor-air quality. One section of one floor – where the tools are neatly sorted and the machines look especially modern – is dedicated entirely to training the young who will spend up to three years getting professional qualifications. Knipex was also fairly forward-thinking in starting the program that allows older adults, like Wingert, to go through professional training. While the company itself does not carry any of the cost, it does have to reorganize schedules and in some cases hire extra workers to fill-in for the time Wingert and his peers miss on the factory floor. Besides, now trained and certified, nothing stops them from going up the road to look for better employment opportunities. For the company such inconvenience is paid off by the loyalty it brings, explains Urspruch. Besides, at a time when many workers are retiring and when the jobs become technically more complex, the measure guarantees the manufacturer a steady supply of well-trained employees. For the government-run national employment agency, footing the bill is a way to make sure unemployment numbers stay low. "Employees without a professional qualification or diploma are usually more vulnerable to unemployment, or in cases where they don't have jobs, have a harder time finding employment," says Paul Ebsen, a spokesperson for the German national employment agency. "That's why the employment agency puts so much stake in professional qualifications." Johann Fortwengel, who has extensively studied German firms who come to America looking for locally trained professional manufacturing technicians to hire – or failing that try to help develop an apprentice system to help train workers – says many Americans don't understand the German concept of apprenticeships. For one, many Americans don't realize that the vast majority of Germans who enter into the system are under 20. "In the States, most people who enter apprenticeships seem to be in the 20s, or even early 30s," says Fortwengel, a lecturer in International Management at Kings College in London. There's also a stigma attached to apprenticeship and technical colleges that is less pronounced in Germany, adds Fortwengel. "Everyone wants to do a bachelor's degree," he says of American culture. But according to experts, the core difference between Germany and the U.S. is how many people and businesses rely on the national apprenticeship system. In the U.S., where the Department of Labor promotes "ApprenticeshipUSA," many – if not most – manufacturing companies still tend to train and evaluate workers themselves, a practice that can leave workers with the kind of narrow training that makes changing jobs difficult. "The German system is so special because it is so standardized," says Fortwengel. According to the University of Luxembourg's Powell, the German system also differs from the American one because of the stakeholders involved: "What makes the system so unique is corporatism; the tripartite of unions, government and companies." Such a structure is one of the reasons that Fortwengel doesn't believe the German system can be easily transplanted into America. "Even in a hundred years, it won't be like the German system," he says. More likely, it will be a training system with a distinctly American flavor." [less ▲]

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See detailInstitutionelle Durchlässigkeit im Bildungs- und Wissenschaftssystem in Deutschland und Frankreich
Bernhard, Nadine; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Wsi‐Mitteilungen : Zeitschrift des Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftlichen Instituts des Deutschen Gewerkschaftsbundes GmbH (2017), 2017(05), 340-347

Dieser Beitrag analysiert, wie sich institutionelle Durchlässigkeitsstrukturen zwischen Berufs- und Hochschulbildung auf der Ebene von Regelungen in Deutschland und Frankreich in den Jahren 2000 bis 2013 ... [more ▼]

Dieser Beitrag analysiert, wie sich institutionelle Durchlässigkeitsstrukturen zwischen Berufs- und Hochschulbildung auf der Ebene von Regelungen in Deutschland und Frankreich in den Jahren 2000 bis 2013 geändert haben. Er diskutiert zudem die Relevanz der Thematik vor dem Hintergrund von Fragen sozialer Durchlässigkeit nicht nur für das Hochschul-, sondern auch das Wissenschaftssystem. Da der Studienabschluss als Voraussetzung für den Eintritt in die Wissenschaft gilt, ist Durchlässigkeit zwischen beruflicher und Hochschulbildung auch verknüpft mit der Frage, wer Zugang zum Wissenschaftssystem bekommt und inwiefern durch größere Offenheit die soziale Selektivität der Studierenden und Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler verringert werden kann. Durchlässigkeit wird als mehrdimensionales Konzept verstanden und es wird gezeigt, dass in beiden Ländern eine Entwicklung in Richtung größerer Durchlässigkeit festzustellen ist. Infolge der unterschiedlichen Strukturen der Hochschulsysteme ist in Deutschland ein größeres Potenzial, z. B. zur Verringerung sozialer Selektivität beizutragen, zu erkennen als in Frankreich. [less ▲]

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See detailGrand Duchy of Luxembourg
Powell, Justin J W UL; Limbach-Reich, Arthur UL; Brendel, Michelle UL

in Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Patton, James R. (Eds.) The Praeger International Handbook of Special Education (2017)

Luxembourg, among the world’s smallest but also wealthiest countries, lies in the heart of Western Europe. Bordered by Belgium, France, and Germany and historically known for its strategic position as the ... [more ▼]

Luxembourg, among the world’s smallest but also wealthiest countries, lies in the heart of Western Europe. Bordered by Belgium, France, and Germany and historically known for its strategic position as the “Gibraltar of the North,” Luxembourg is today one of the European Union’s three capital cities. Luxembourg sits at the crossroads between Europe’s Germanic and Francophone language communities. The Grand Duchy’s inhabitants and their many languages – the national language Luxemburgish as well as German and French as languages of administration and of everyday living – reflect the country’s close historical relations with its neighbors and remarkable migratory flows that have resulted in an ethnically hyper-diverse and multilingual population. Reflecting this cultural diversity, the educational system emphasizes language learning, with Luxemburgish learned in preschool; German the focus throughout primary schooling and in secondary technical-vocational education; and French emphasized in secondary academic-oriented schooling. Compulsory schooling age lasts from 4 to 16. The educational system provides a range of primary and secondary schools, mainly run by government but with some maintained by religious bodies. Home schooling is possible, but rare. At the tertiary level, the national flagship University of Luxembourg (UL), building upon the legacies of several postsecondary training institutes, was founded in 2003 according to three principles: internationality, multilingualism, and interdisciplinarity. Beyond this research university, more applied postsecondary organizations offer a range of courses of study. Today, tertiary attainment for 25 to 34 year-olds, more than half of each cohort, is among the highest across OECD countries. [less ▲]

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See detailHigher Education Systems and Institutions, Qatar
Crist, John T.; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Shin, J.C.; Teixeira, P. (Eds.) Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions (2017)

The tertiary education sector in Qatar has grown very rapidly, viewed as key to national development on the path to the “knowledge society,” also to reduce its reliance on limited natural resources. The ... [more ▼]

The tertiary education sector in Qatar has grown very rapidly, viewed as key to national development on the path to the “knowledge society,” also to reduce its reliance on limited natural resources. The states of the Islamic world, with a significant but long-obscured past of scientific achievement, are witnessing a contemporary renaissance. The establishment of international offshore, satellite or branch campuses in the Persian or Arabian Gulf region emphasizes the dynamism of higher education development. With a history of several decades, Qatar’s higher education and science policies join contrasting strategies prevalent in capacity building attempts worldwide – to emulate the strongest global exemplars through importation as well as to cultivate local, indigenous assets. Thus, university-related and science policymaking on the peninsula has been designed to directly connect with global developments while building local capacity in higher education and scientific productivity [less ▲]

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See detailRäumliche Vielfalt der Inklusiven Bildung und sonderpädagogische Fördersysteme im Vergleich
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Gercke, Magdalena; Opalinski, Saskia; Thonagel, Tim (Eds.) Inklusive Bildung und gesellschaftliche Exklusion (2017)

Die hohe und gestiegene Bedeutung inklusiver Bildung für Gesellschaften und Individuen wird global, national, regional und lokal von verschiedensten Akteur*innen hervorgehoben und medial sehr breit ... [more ▼]

Die hohe und gestiegene Bedeutung inklusiver Bildung für Gesellschaften und Individuen wird global, national, regional und lokal von verschiedensten Akteur*innen hervorgehoben und medial sehr breit rezipiert – und zunehmend auch wissenschaftlich multidisziplinär diskutiert. Inklusive schulische Bildung kann in den Merkmalen des Zugangs und der Anwesenheit, der Beteiligung und der Teilhabe (Qualität der Lernerfahrungen aus Sicht der Lernenden) sowie in Bezug auf die Lernleistung, respektive deren Zertifizierung bewertet werden. Aber inklusive Bildung als Menschenrecht zu verstehen geht weit über die Schulbildung hinaus. Die globale Norm des Menschenrechts auf inklusive Bildung wird zunehmend spezifischer, dennoch bedarf es der Forschung, der Interpretation und der Implementation, was gerade in föderalistisch gesteuerten Bildungssystemen mit räumlichen Disparitäten einhergeht. Inter- wie intranational werden vergleichende Analysen und Länderberichte immer wichtiger, um den Stand nicht nur der schulischen Inklusion, sondern der individuellen Verwirklichungschancen sowie der gesellschaftlichen Teilhabe von benachteiligten und behinderten Menschen zu messen. Die räumliche Vielfalt der Inklusiven Bildung und sonderpädagogische Fördersysteme verdeutlicht vielfältige Grenzen, aber auch Gelingensbedingungen der Inklusion. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegrating International Student Mobility in Work-Based Higher Education: The Case of Germany
Graf, Lukas; Powell, Justin J W UL; Fortwengel, Johann et al

in Journal of Studies in International Education (2017), 21(2), 156169

Dual study programs are hybrid forms of work-based higher education that have expanded very rapidly in Germany—a country traditionally considered a key model in both higher education (HE) and vocational ... [more ▼]

Dual study programs are hybrid forms of work-based higher education that have expanded very rapidly in Germany—a country traditionally considered a key model in both higher education (HE) and vocational education and training (VET). The continued expansion of these hybrid programs increasingly raises questions if, how, and why they may be internationalized. Although comparative research suggests that this could be challenging due to the uniqueness of the German education and training system, strong forces support internationalization. This study examines the current state and the future prospects of internationalization of such innovative dual study programs by focusing on student mobility, a key dimension of internationalization. We find growing interest in but still relatively little mobility related to dual study programs, whether among German (outgoing) or international (incoming) students. Based on expert interviews and document analysis, we extend existing typologies of student mobility regarding specific features of work-based HE programs. Furthermore, we discuss opportunities—at home and abroad—for increasing student mobility in this rapidly expanding sector. [less ▲]

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See detailMoving towards Mode 2? Evidence-based Policy-Making and the Changing Conditions for Educational Research in Germany
Zapp, Mike UL; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Science and Public Policy (2017), 2017(doi: 10.1093/scipol/scw091),

The ‘Mode 2’ conceptual approach has become among the most widely applied to discuss changes in contemporary science and innovation systems. Operationalized, this approach suggests that contextualized ... [more ▼]

The ‘Mode 2’ conceptual approach has become among the most widely applied to discuss changes in contemporary science and innovation systems. Operationalized, this approach suggests that contextualized, transdisciplinary, application-driven, reflexive, and high-quality scientific knowledge will be produced by an increasingly heterogeneous set of organizations, with universities no longer as dominant in knowledge production. Analyzing the case of educational research in Germany, which has undergone profound institutional and paradigmatic change since the turn of the century, allows us to ask to what extent the Mode 2 thesis holds. Considerable investments in ‘empirical’ educational research and the top-down setting of the research agenda have, we argue, fundamentally altered the research infrastructure of this increasingly diverse multidisciplinary field, challenging traditional humanities-based Pädagogik. Facilitated especially by waves of large-scale assessments of pupils’ school performance, the rapidly-growing ‘empirical’ educational research field is characterized by quantitative and policy-relevant (applied) knowledge claims. Finally, we identify risks associated with rapid and policy-induced shifts in educational research from Mode 1 to Mode 2. [less ▲]

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See detailHow Employer Interests and Investments Shape Advanced Skill Formation
Graf, Lukas; Powell, Justin J W UL

in PS: Political Science and Politics (2017), 50(2), 418-422

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See detailScience Production in Germany, France, Belgium, and Luxembourg: Comparing the Contributions of Research Universities and Institutes to Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, and Health
Powell, Justin J W UL; Dusdal, Jennifer UL

in Minerva : A Review of Science, Learning & Policy (2017), 55

Charting significant growth in scientific productivity over the 20th century in four EU member states, this neo-institutional analysis describes the development and current state of universities and ... [more ▼]

Charting significant growth in scientific productivity over the 20th century in four EU member states, this neo-institutional analysis describes the development and current state of universities and research institutes that bolsters Europe’s position as a key region in global science. On-going internationalization and Europeanization of higher education and science has been accompanied by increasing competition as well as collaboration. Despite the political goals to foster innovation and further expand research capacity, in cross-national and historical comparison, neither the level of R&D investments nor country size accounts completely for the differential growth of scientific productivity. Based on a comprehensive historical database, this analysis uncovers both stable and dynamic patterns of productivity from 1975 to 2010 in Ger- many, France, Belgium, and Luxembourg. Measured in peer-reviewed research articles collected in Thomson Reuters Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE), we show the varying contributions of different organizational forms, especially research universities and research institutes. Comparing the institutionalization pathways that created the conditions necessary for continuous and strong growth in scientific productivity in the European center of global science emphasizes that the research university is key organizational form across countries. [less ▲]

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See detailHow to Construct an Organizational Field: Empirical Educational Research in Germany, 1995–2015
Zapp, Mike UL; Powell, Justin J W UL

in European Educational Research Journal (2016), 15(5), 537-557

Over the past two decades, educational research in Germany has undergone unprecedented changes. Following large-scale assessments such as the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS ... [more ▼]

Over the past two decades, educational research in Germany has undergone unprecedented changes. Following large-scale assessments such as the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), and a political interest in evidence-based policy-making, quality assessment and internationalization, direct involvement of national decision-makers has led to the establishment of new organizations, programs, funding structures, professorships, and training programs. Thus, a markedly different educational research field has emerged in contrast to the traditional philosophy-rooted, hermeneutics-trained and humanities-based German pedagogy or education science. Instead, the new paradigm refers to itself as "empirical educational research" (EER). Thus, we trace institutionalization processes of EER from early 1995 through the foundation of the Empirical Educational Research Association (GEBF), which rivals the long-standing German Educational Research Association (DGfE). Official documents shed light on policymakers’ and funding agencies’ motivations and rationales as they successfully engage in building new research infrastructure. Expert interviews conducted with (inter)national representatives illuminate perceptions of crucial actors involved in field institutionalization. What are the causes and consequences of the emergent educational research in Germany? Extending the neo-institutionalist organizational field literature, particularly about incipient stages of such fields, we show that a new division of labor transcends national and international as well as governmental and non-governmental borders. [less ▲]

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See detailStudieren und Barrierefreiheit: Stolpersteine auf dem Weg zur Barrierefreiheit und wie sie aus dem Weg geräumt werden könnten
Limbach-Reich, Arthur UL; Powell, Justin J W UL

Article for general public (2016)

Zusammenfassung in Leichter Sprache: Arthur Limbach-Reich und Justin Powell arbeiten an der Universität. Sie wollen, dass jeder etwas lernen kann. Deswegen soll die Uni für jeden auf sein. An der Uni ... [more ▼]

Zusammenfassung in Leichter Sprache: Arthur Limbach-Reich und Justin Powell arbeiten an der Universität. Sie wollen, dass jeder etwas lernen kann. Deswegen soll die Uni für jeden auf sein. An der Uni gibt es aber Barrieren. Deswegen kommt nicht jeder rein. Darüber schreiben beide Lehrer. [less ▲]

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