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See detailEnlarging the frame: Issues of inclusion and mental health in an ageing society
Ferring, Dieter UL; Murdock, Elke UL

in Journal of Mental Health Research in Intellectual Disabilities (in press)

This contribution frames the notions of inclusion and mental health by describing trends in European societies at the social and economic level that will have direct consequences for a participative civil ... [more ▼]

This contribution frames the notions of inclusion and mental health by describing trends in European societies at the social and economic level that will have direct consequences for a participative civil society and social cohesion. Starting point is the observation that the world faces challenges at the start of the 21st century that are new and unprecedented in its history. The four global forces that break all the trends known so far in human history include urbanization, accelerating technological development, greater global connections, and population ageing. The authors first describe the scale of population ageing, as ageing populations characterize several developed economies. In a second step, they highlight some consequences of population ageing for social welfare and in a third part they elaborate on the notion of justice and inclusion in rapidly changing societies. [less ▲]

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See detailEnlarging the frame: Issues of Inclusion and mental health in an ageing society
Murdock, Elke UL; Ferring, Dieter UL

Scientific Conference (2017, September 22)

This contribution frames the notions of inclusion and mental health by describing trends in European societies at the social and economic level that will have direct consequences for a participative civil ... [more ▼]

This contribution frames the notions of inclusion and mental health by describing trends in European societies at the social and economic level that will have direct consequences for a participative civil society and social cohesion. Our starting point is the observation that the world faces challenges at the start of the 21st century that are new and unprecedented in its history. The four global forces that break all the trends known so far in human history include urbanisation, accelerating technological development, greater global connections, and population ageing (Dobbs, Manyika and Woetzel, 2016). We will first describe the scale of population ageing, as ageing populutions characterize several developed economies. In a second step, we will highlight some consequences of population ageing for social welfare and in a third part I will elaborate on the notion of justice and inclusion in rapidly changing societies. [less ▲]

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See detailRestraint and Transgression - a Cross-Cultural Perspective
Murdock, Elke UL

Presentation (2017, September 12)

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See detailChanging (multi-)cultural contexts through the lense of the receiving society
Murdock, Elke UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Ferring, Dieter UL

in 9th European IACCP Conference - Program and the book of abstracts (2017, July 17)

Using the natural laboratory of Luxembourg with a foreign population of 47% as case study example, we outline the diversification of diversity. The immigrant population is increasingly heterogeneous in ... [more ▼]

Using the natural laboratory of Luxembourg with a foreign population of 47% as case study example, we outline the diversification of diversity. The immigrant population is increasingly heterogeneous in terms of countries of origin, length of stay/ generation status, economic participation and acculturation choices. Who is a Luxembourger is increasingly difficult to define and minority or majority becomes ever more fluid. Empirical findings concerning the attitude of the receiving society towards multiculturalism will be presented including implications for national identification. We aim to shed light on inter-individual differences in terms of views on immigration among the receiving society, also taking into consideration regional demographic differences. We draw on two different samples, one from the center of Luxembourg (N = 507), where the native population is in the minority and a more regionally diversified sample (N = 238). Similarities and differences will be highlighted and implications discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailIDENTITY AND ITS CONSTRUAL: LEARNING FROM LUXEMBOURG
Murdock, Elke UL

in Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science (2017)

This article examines national identity construal processes within the case study context of Luxembourg. Building on research highlighting the modalities of generalization from case studies, I present the ... [more ▼]

This article examines national identity construal processes within the case study context of Luxembourg. Building on research highlighting the modalities of generalization from case studies, I present the country case that is Luxembourg. This social universe has a foreign population percentage of 47% and what is considered majority and minority becomes increasingly fluid. The migration process itself is fluid, ranging from daily migration, to medium-term stays, return visits and permanent immigration including uptake of citizenship. Within such a fluid environment, where national borders are permeable at the physical level of crossing borders and (national) societies are nested within societies, culture contact is a permanent feature in daily life. Nationality becomes a salient feature as culture contact tends to prompt reflection, resulting in questioning and (re-)negotiation of national identity. This affects the native population as well as the diverse immigrant population – with diversity going beyond the level of country of origin. Many individuals are also of mixed nationality and some examples for the construal process of national identity will be provided, illustrating how national identity is negotiated at individual level. Like a periscope, this country let s us adjust mirrors, permitting us to observe modes of identity construal which would otherwise be obstructed from the field of view. The case study that is Luxembourg allows us to look at the micro-setting of the construction, potentially of something new. [less ▲]

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See detailMulticultural Diplomacy
Murdock, Elke UL

Scientific Conference (2017, May 24)

In this interactive workshop I firstly explore the concept of multiculturalism in its many facets. Participants’ own understanding, interpretations and views of the term multiculturalism will be gathered ... [more ▼]

In this interactive workshop I firstly explore the concept of multiculturalism in its many facets. Participants’ own understanding, interpretations and views of the term multiculturalism will be gathered. These personal experiences and views will then be contrasted with scholarly explorations of the term, starting with the origins in the human rights movements. Theoretical analyses of the idea(l) of multiculturalism will then be presented, including misleading and current conceptualizations. The second part of the workshop focuses on the applied side or (multi)-cultural competences necessary to navigate today’s multicultural world. What are the key competences lying at the heart of multicultural diplomacy, ensuring sustainable development? Guided by developmental psychological theory, the diversity model applied by the German Academy for International Cooperation and the Council of Europe deliberations on cultural competences we will interactively develop and discuss a catalogue of competences conducive to living as equals in culturally diverse societies. [less ▲]

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See detailMulticulturalism, Identity and Difference. Experiences of Culture Contact
Murdock, Elke UL

Book published by Palgrave Macmillan (2016)

Multicultural societies are a phenomenon that is increasingly observed worldwide. This book brings together theoretical perspectives and empirical evidence on how culture contact is experienced at the ... [more ▼]

Multicultural societies are a phenomenon that is increasingly observed worldwide. This book brings together theoretical perspectives and empirical evidence on how culture contact is experienced at the individual level. At the heart of this book lies the question of how individuals living within a multicultural society experience the meeting of cultures. The studies were conducted in Luxembourg, a country where the foreign population has reached 45%. Luxembourg is a “natural laboratory” and provides an ideal context in which to study culture contact phenomena and to derive lessons for an increasingly globalized world. The empirical studies indicate a gap between multiculturalist ideas and specific forms of societal participation. The policy implications of the findings are discussed. These include a focus on highlighting similarities between cultures rather than differences, and addressing the issue of reciprocity – expectations of both, the receiving society as well as immigrants. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification with all humanity and the rating of social groups living in Germany
Murdock, Elke UL; Schneider, Vanessa; Ferring, Dieter UL

Scientific Conference (2016, August 02)

Past research on identification with all humanity (IWAH) has shown that this concept relates to higher levels of concern and supportive behavior toward the disadvantaged. The stereotype content model (SCM ... [more ▼]

Past research on identification with all humanity (IWAH) has shown that this concept relates to higher levels of concern and supportive behavior toward the disadvantaged. The stereotype content model (SCM) says that warmth and competence are fundamental dimensions of social judgment. In the present study we assessed, if IWAH influences the rating of social groups in a sample of young German adults (N=364). Relevant social groups in Germany were identified in a Pilot study (N=27). We randomly assigned participants to two conditions: In line with SCM we asked participants to judge the social groups as a typical German would (control condition) and under the experimental condition to rate the groups as they personally would. The results indicate significant differences in the ratings between the two conditions. IWAH did not affect the stereotypical judgements, but significant differences were found for the personal judgements, especially for warmth ratings of disadvantaged groups. [less ▲]

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See detailMono, bi or multi? Identification processes in a multicultural context
Murdock, Elke UL; Ferring, Dieter UL

Scientific Conference (2016, July 31)

Luxembourg’s foreign population currently stands at 45%. Consequences of this demographic composition include frequent opportunities for culture contact and mixed-national households. In a series of ... [more ▼]

Luxembourg’s foreign population currently stands at 45%. Consequences of this demographic composition include frequent opportunities for culture contact and mixed-national households. In a series of quantitative studies we investigated how children growing up in this multicultural context organize and experience their nationalities. Do they self-identify in a mono- or bicultural way, and what factors contribute to either identification? How are the nationalities experienced? Participants were recruited at two secondary schools representing different contexts (N = 204, age M = 15.16, SD = 0.84 and N = 225, age M = 15.93, SD = 1.15). An open self-definition measure and an adapted version of the bicultural identity integration scale were used. The results indicate that culture contact alone is not a sufficient condition for self-identification as bicultural. Factors influencing the self-identification process will be presented. Implications for identity processes within increasingly diverse societies will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification with all Humanity – a Means to Bridge Diversity?
Murdock, Elke UL; Schneider, Vanessa; Ferring, Dieter UL

Scientific Conference (2016, July 08)

Theoretical background In Identification With All Humanity (IWAH), McFarland, Webb, and Brown (2012) presented a new construct as well as a measure for global concern and supportive behaviour toward the ... [more ▼]

Theoretical background In Identification With All Humanity (IWAH), McFarland, Webb, and Brown (2012) presented a new construct as well as a measure for global concern and supportive behaviour toward the disadvantaged, predicting concern for global human rights and humanitarian needs. Reese, Proch, & Finn (2015) suggested that IWAH consists of two dimensions, namely self-definition and self-investment, with the latter being the stronger predictor for behaviour. In relation to this, the stereotype content model (SCM, Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, & Xu, 2002) argues that warmth and competence are fundamental dimensions of social judgment. Since McFarland et al.’s research has shown that persons high in IWAH value the lives of in- and outgroup members equally, we hypothesized that IWAH would also influence the social judgement of groups. Method Sample. We conducted an online survey among young German adults (N= 364) with a mean age of 27.1 years (SD = 9.4). Female participants were in the majority (76%), and the level of education was high (completion of secondary education or above) reflecting recruitment within a university environment. Participation was voluntary and anonymous with the option to be included in a lottery for 2 x €25 and 2 x €10 vouchers. Measures. The survey included the IWAH scale, the Behavioural intentions to reduce global inequality scale (Reese, Bertholt, Steffens, 2012) and actual behaviour (donations and voluntary work) in the past year. As a criterion measure, relevant social groups in Germany were identified in a Pilot study (N=27). We randomly assigned participants to two conditions: In line with SCM we asked participants to judge the social groups identified in the pilot study as a typical German would (stereotypical judgment; control condition) and under the experimental condition to rate the groups as they personally would. This instruction was the only difference between the two groups. Results The results indicate significant differences in the social group ratings between the two conditions with respect to perceived warmth and competence. IWAH did not affect the stereotypical judgements in the control condition, confirming that stereotypes are indeed shared by members of society. Significant differences were found, however, for the personal judgements, especially for warmth ratings of disadvantaged groups. Higher warmth ratings also mean higher willingness to engage with others, thus allowing for a virtuous cycle. The component self-definition played a key role in this process. When viewing others, self-referencing becomes important. Those who perceive themselves as being part of one human family (greater in-group homogeneity) and those who enhance mutual similarity (prototypicality) also perceive stigmatized groups as being closer to themselves. [less ▲]

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See detailAttitude towards Multiculturalism – Majority in Minority Perspective
Murdock, Elke UL; Ferring, Dieter UL

in Roland-Lévy, Christine; Denoux, P.; Voyer, Benjamin (Eds.) et al Unity, Diversity and Culture; Culture contact: Unity and Diversity. (2016)

Even within a globalizing world, Luxembourg takes an exceptional position with a foreign population of 44 %. Within the capital of Luxembourg, home to a fifth of the country’s population, the native ... [more ▼]

Even within a globalizing world, Luxembourg takes an exceptional position with a foreign population of 44 %. Within the capital of Luxembourg, home to a fifth of the country’s population, the native population only makes up 33% of the population. Outwardly the cosmopolitan diversity is praised, but how is this increasingly plural composition of society perceived by the native population which finds itself in the minority within its own capital? To investigate this specific “majority as minority”-perspective a quantitative study was conducted within a Luxembourg employer (N = 507) which has a large native born work force. We examined the endorsement of multiculturalism using an adaptation of the Multiculturalism Ideology Scale and the Social Participation Subscale of the Multicultural Attitude Scale. We tested the relationship between demographic variables and different forms of culture contact experience and the endorsement of multiculturalism. The results show an endorsement of the idea of a plurally composed society shared by the majority of respondents; the results also show reluctance towards specific social participation measures of the allochthonous population. A slight gender effect was found, with women showing higher endorsement of multiculturalism, but no age effect. The support for multiculturalism also rises in line with the educational level achieved. Direct culture contact, operationalized in terms of composition of circle of friends, is also conducive for endorsement of multiculturalism. Results are discussed within an acculturation context where majority – minority relations become increasingly fluid and cultural diversity is positively evaluated and accepted as a norm but specific behavioural aspects of living together have yet to be aligned. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Elusive European Identity: Reflections on the Structure of this Supra-national Identity – and the Lack of Salience
Murdock, Elke UL

in Studia Humanistyczno-Społeczne („Humanities and Social Studies”) (2016), 13

Research on European identity has consistently found low identification with this supra-national category. One of the reasons for the continued interest in the concept of supra-national identities is the ... [more ▼]

Research on European identity has consistently found low identification with this supra-national category. One of the reasons for the continued interest in the concept of supra-national identities is the question whether this collective medium of identification would provide a sense of integration with other social groups. Theories of self and identity construal are presented, which also highlight how we process information about ourselves and others. Past research has pointed to the role of experience levels with a supra-national entity such as Europe for identification with that entity to occur. Whereas persons with low experience levels of Europe have shown consistently low identification with Europe, in some instances, higher experience levels of Europe (i.e. through language competence, exchange programs, work experience) have also produced higher identification with Europe. Within the present series of studies we assessed levels of identification with Europe amongst a group of students who have high exposure to Europe. The objective was to assess, whether high exposure translates into high spontaneous identification with Europe. In Study 1) we looked at the salience of European identification in the spontaneous self-concept. In Study 2) students were asked to self-categorize in terms of nationality. European identification was neither elicited in the spontaneous self-concept nor used as a self-description in terms of nationality. These findings are discussed against a background of identity theories including, national identity and wider collective identities. European identity is likely to remain elusive and alternative research approaches are suggested within a globalizing world. [less ▲]

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See detailMulticulturalism within the context of Luxembourg
Murdock, Elke UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

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See detailIdentification with Europe – a matter of exposure?
Murdock, Elke UL; Ferring, Dieter UL

Poster (2015, September 11)

Research on European identity has consistently found low identification with the supra-national category European for participants with low experience levels of Europe. In some instances, higher ... [more ▼]

Research on European identity has consistently found low identification with the supra-national category European for participants with low experience levels of Europe. In some instances, higher experience levels of Europe, for example through language competence, exchange programs or work experience have also produced higher levels of identification with Europe. However, overall identification levels with Europe rest still low. To assess the impact of exposure to Europe on identification with Europe, two empirical studies were carried out among adolescents who are growing up with high experience levels of Europe. Participants are students at the European School of Luxembourg, which is divided into language sections representing the member states of the European Union. The students learn a second language from Primary school onwards and more languages are added later on. They attend weekly “European hour” classes and many parents work for one of the European institutions located in Luxembourg. Luxembourg itself is a trilingual country, sharing borders with three countries and a foreign population of 44%. In the first study, 106 students, average age M = 13.64, SD = 1.72 participated and the salience of the supra-national category European was assessed in the spontaneous self-concept using a modified version of the Twenty Statement Test. None of the European school students mentioned “European” in their spontaneous self-concept. In the second study (N = 204, average age M =15.16, SD = 0.84) students were asked to self-categorize in terms of nationality. Bicultural self-definitions were common, but only one student described herself as “European”. These findings amongst the high exposure group to Europe are discussed against a background of identity theories including theories on national identity and wider collective identities. I will argue that European identity is likely to remain elusive and alternative research approaches are suggested within a globalizing world. [less ▲]

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See detailExpectations of mutual support and care in the light of migration
Albert, Isabelle UL; Ferring, Dieter UL; Barros Coimbra, Stephanie UL et al

Scientific Conference (2015, September 08)

As first generation immigrants are currently approaching retirement age in many European countries, intergenerational solidarity within the context of acculturation gains high importance. However, most ... [more ▼]

As first generation immigrants are currently approaching retirement age in many European countries, intergenerational solidarity within the context of acculturation gains high importance. However, most research on intergenerational relations in ageing families so far has not drawn special attention to migrant families. The aim of the present study was to investigate similarities and differences in the expectations about intergenerational support in a sample of n = 48 Luxembourgish (68.8% female) and n = 36 Portuguese (60.5% female) adult children and at least one of their parents. Luxembourgish adult children were on average M = 25.90 (SD = 5.74) years old, Portuguese M = 27.28 (SD = 6.49). A total of 58.3% of Portuguese adult children were born in Luxembourg; the remainder was born in Portugal but had grown up in Luxembourg. For all participants, both parents were still alive and were living in the Grand-Duchy. Whereas Luxembourgish and Portuguese adult children did not differ regarding family cohesion and expected support from parents toward children, Portuguese participants reported higher expectations of support from adult children toward their ageing parents. More Portuguese than Luxembourgish parents indicated they would like to live with their children in case of need, whereas more Luxembourgish parents preferred to live in a residential home. Nonetheless, no differences between adult children of both national groups were found regarding filial anxiety about future care of parents. Results are discussed in the framework of an integrative model on intergenerational family relations in the light of migration and ageing. This model takes several aspects into account that might have an impact on different needs, tasks and resources of the individual and the family depending on different family cultures, the larger cultural context in which family relations are embedded as well as significant events over the life-span (such as migration history). [less ▲]

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See detailIntergenerationale Wertetransmission im Akkulturationskontext: Ein Vergleich von in Luxemburg lebenden Eltern-Kind-Triaden im Erwachsenenalter
Albert, Isabelle UL; Barros Coimbra, Stephanie UL; Murdock, Elke UL et al

Scientific Conference (2015, August 31)

Internationale Mobilität ist heute ein Kernthema vieler Gesellschaften und die Akkulturation von Migranten hat gerade in Europa hohe Bedeutsamkeit erlangt. Hier stellt sich die Frage, inwieweit a ... [more ▼]

Internationale Mobilität ist heute ein Kernthema vieler Gesellschaften und die Akkulturation von Migranten hat gerade in Europa hohe Bedeutsamkeit erlangt. Hier stellt sich die Frage, inwieweit a) Werthaltungen von Einwanderern und Einheimischen sich annähern, b) Werthaltungen im Akkulturationskontext in der Familie von einer Generation an die nächste weitergegeben werden. Die vorliegende Studie befasst sich mit der Werteähnlichkeit von Eltern und erwachsenen Kindern in portugiesischen Immigrantenfamilien in Luxemburg im Vergleich zu luxemburgischen Familien. Im Rahmen der vom FNR geförderten IRMA-Studie wurden mittels eines standardisierten Fragebogens Daten zu Werthaltungen, wahrgenommener intergenerationeller Werteähnlichkeit sowie subjektiver Wichtigkeit der Wertetransmission an N=40 in Luxemburg lebenden portugiesischen sowie N=41 luxemburgischen Vater-Mutter-Kind-Triaden erhoben. Erste Ergebnisse weisen auf eine Angleichung der Werteprofile der portugiesischen Teilnehmer in der zweiten Generation an die Werthaltungen der luxemburgischen Teilnehmer hin. Dennoch bleiben Unterschiede in der Wichtigkeit spezifischer Werthaltungen über beide Generationen erhalten. So schätzen die portugiesischen Kinder und Eltern Sicherheit und Tradition höher ein als die luxemburgischen Teilnehmer. Die Ergebnisse werden vor dem Hintergrund theoretischer Ansätze der intergenerationalen Wertetransmission sowie unter Berücksichtigung intrafamilialer Prozesse der Beziehungsregulation diskutiert. [less ▲]

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See detailAnd the winner is … comparative studies of the attitude towards multiculturalism in Luxembourg
Murdock, Elke UL; Ferring, Dieter UL

Scientific Conference (2015, July 29)

And the winner is … comparative studies of the attitude towards multiculturalism in Luxembourg Even within a globalizing world Luxembourg takes an exceptional position with a foreign population of 44 ... [more ▼]

And the winner is … comparative studies of the attitude towards multiculturalism in Luxembourg Even within a globalizing world Luxembourg takes an exceptional position with a foreign population of 44 %, rising to 68 % in the capital and in terms of its demographic composition, Luxembourg can be considered as truly multicultural. In a series of four quantitative studies we assessed the attitude towards multiculturalism using the Multicultural Ideology Scale (MIS). The scale was administered to adolescents at two different secondary schools in Luxembourg with different student populations: a comprehensive State school (N = 225, average age M = 15.9, SD = 1.2) which has students coming from a wide range of backgrounds, and the European School of Luxembourg (N = 204, average age M =15.2, SD = 0.8) which has many students whose parents work for one of the European Institutions. In a third study an online survey was predominantly, but not exclusively, completed by a student population (N = 640, average age M = 24.6, SD = 0.9) and finally, a survey was conducted among a large Luxembourg employer with a cross-section of a mainly native-born workforce (N = 507, average age M = 42, SD = 10). Findings show across all samples that the idea of multiculturalism is generally endorsed, but to a different degree. Factors influencing the level of endorsement will be presented and implications discussed for increasingly diverse societies. [less ▲]

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See detailBilingualism = Biculturalism? Reflections on the relationship between language and culture
Murdock, Elke UL; Ferring, Dieter UL

Scientific Conference (2015, July 10)

Bilingualism = Biculturalism? Reflections on the relationship between language and culture Luxembourg has three officially recognized national languages (French, German, and Luxembourgish); at least two ... [more ▼]

Bilingualism = Biculturalism? Reflections on the relationship between language and culture Luxembourg has three officially recognized national languages (French, German, and Luxembourgish); at least two of these are used in everyday interactions by Luxembourgers and the non-resident population. A series of empirical studies using quantitative as well as qualitative methodology tested the relationship between bilingualism and biculturalism. The first study (N = 99 students) addressed tri-lingual Luxembourg nationals. The results of this quantitative study showed that the vast majority of the Luxembourg participants consider themselves to be multi- or bilingual, though they report to feel monocultural. The qualitative findings obtained in this study indicate that language was considered to be a necessary, but not sufficient condition for multiculturalism. In line with other research on biculturalism, the results showed that biculturalism requires cultural immersion to take place. Furthermore, for those who feel bicultural, language is considered a prime for cultural frame switching. This implies that the language prompts the cultural frame switching and the switching between languages does not require conscious efforts. This difference of perception of language as a cultural prime as opposed to language as a means of communication was also confirmed in a study among adolescents (N = 204) and a study among adults (N = 504). Implications are discussed for increasingly diverse, multi-lingual societies. [less ▲]

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See detailMulticulturalism in Portuguese Migrants from Luxembourg
Barros Coimbra, Stephanie UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Murdock, Elke UL et al

Scientific Conference (2015, July)

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See detailIdentity and acculturation: On being mono- and bicultural in a multicultural context
Murdock, Elke UL; Ferring, Dieter UL

Scientific Conference (2015, June 30)

Identity and acculturation: On being mono- and bicultural in a multicultural context Even within a globalizing world, Luxembourg takes an exceptional position with a foreign population of 44 ... [more ▼]

Identity and acculturation: On being mono- and bicultural in a multicultural context Even within a globalizing world, Luxembourg takes an exceptional position with a foreign population of 44 %. Furthermore, Luxembourg is a trilingual country and the official languages French, German and Luxembourgish are widely spoken, as well as English and the languages representing the countries of origin of the residents. Luxembourg’s steel industry attracted several waves of guest workers from neighboring countries as well as Italy and Portugal. Many descendants now live in the second or even third generation in Luxembourg. As host to many European Institutions and as a global financial services center, Luxembourg attracts an international workforce. The result is a multicultural composition of society and residents who have experienced different forms and degrees of culture contact. One further consequence of this multicultural context is that many children grow up in mixed-national households or are born in a country which is different to their passport country or to that of their parents. In a series of quantitative studies we investigated how children raised in this multilingual, multicultural context and growing up in bi-national families or in a country different to their passport country organize and experience their nationalities. Studies were conducted at two different secondary schools, namely the European School of Luxembourg (N = 204, average age M = 15.16, SD = 0.84) which attracts a large number of children whose parents work for the European Institutions and a large comprehensive Luxembourg State school (N = 225, average age M = 15.93, SD = 1.15) whose students come from a wide range of backgrounds. At both schools the student populations represent a wide range of countries and about half are raised in mixed national households. First an open self-definition measure was applied to assess whether the students self-identify in a mono- or bicultural manner. Secondly, an adapted version of the bicultural identity integration measure was administered to evaluate whether biculturalism is experienced as a source of conflict and to what extend the nationalities are integrated in the daily lives. The results indicate that culture contact alone is not a sufficient condition to self-identify in a bicultural way. Students growing up in mixed national households, however, are more likely to self-identify as bicultural and experience this biculturalism as harmonious, a source of pride and serving the sense of uniqueness. Further factors influencing the self-definition process as mono- or bicultural will be discussed and implications for identity processes within increasingly diverse societies elaborated within an acculturation framework. [less ▲]

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