References of "Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine 50002142"
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See detailTeachers´ judgments and decision making: Studies concerning the transition from primary to secondary education and their implications for teacher education
Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Hörstermann, Thomas UL

in Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga (Ed.) Assessment of Learning Outcomes in Higher Education – Cross-national Comparisons and Perspectives (in press)

Accuracy in assessing academic achievement and potential is a core component of teachers’ diagnostic competence. Large-scale studies in the Luxembourgish and German educational systems show that teachers’ ... [more ▼]

Accuracy in assessing academic achievement and potential is a core component of teachers’ diagnostic competence. Large-scale studies in the Luxembourgish and German educational systems show that teachers’ secondary school track decisions are biased by a student’s social background. Therefore, biased assessment of students may contribute to the social inequalities observed in secondary schools in both countries. Within a social cognitive framework of dual-process theories, bias is explained by heuristic information processing, which, in contrast to information-integrating processing, relies on stereotype-based expectations to form judgments about students. A series of experimental studies investigated the information processing strategies of teachers, identifying a low accountability of the decision setting and a high consistency of student information as key moderators that promote stereotype-based information processing strategies in teachers’ school track decisions. Similar effects were shown for novice teachers at the beginning of their professional career. Further research evaluated intervention modules based on increased accountability, feedback, and increased knowledge about judgment formation processes. Results demonstrated that all evaluated intervention modules led to higher judgment accuracy and more information-integrating processing. Reviewing current models of teachers’ diagnostic competence, the findings on teachers’ information processing emphasized the need to include situational and process-oriented components into models of diagnostic competence. Beside a cognitive component – the ability to form accurate and unbiased judgments – diagnostic competence includes an adaptive choice of information processing strategies, depending on the accountability and information consistency of the judgment setting. Results on intervention modules gave insights how to increase diagnostic competence in teacher education programs. [less ▲]

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See detailStudent case vignettes for the investigation of teachers' tracking decisions
Böhmer, Ines; Hörstermann, Thomas UL; Gräsel, Cornelia et al

Report (in press)

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See detailComparing regression approaches in modelling (non-)compensatory judgement formation
Hörstermann, Thomas UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL

in Studies in classification, data analysis and knowledge organization (in press)

Applied research on judgment formation, e.g. in education, is interested in identifying the underlying judgment rules from empirical judgment data. Psychological theories and empirical results on human ... [more ▼]

Applied research on judgment formation, e.g. in education, is interested in identifying the underlying judgment rules from empirical judgment data. Psychological theories and empirical results on human judgment formation support the assumption of compensatory strategies, e.g. (weighted) linear models, as well as non compensatory (heuristic) strategies as underlying judgment rules. Previous research repeatedly demonstrated that linear regression models well fitted empirical judgment data, leading to the conclusion that the underlying cognitive judgment rules were also linear and compensatory. This simulation study investigated whether a good fit of a linear regression model is a valid indicator of a compensatory cognitive judgment formation process. Simulated judgment data sets with underlying compensatory and noncompensatory judgment rules were generated to reflect typical judgment data from applied educational research. Results indicated that linear regression models well fitted even judgment data with underlying non compensatory judgment rules, thus impairing the validity of the fit of the linear model as an indicator of compensatory cognitive judgment processes. [less ▲]

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See detailTeachers’ assessments of students’ achievements: The ecological validity of studies using case vignettes
Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Hörstermann, Thomas UL; Glock, Sabine et al

in Journal of Experimental Education (in press)

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See detailStereotypen gegenüber SchülerInnen mit Förderbedarf: Überzeugungen von erfahrenen Lehrkräften, Lehramtsstudierenden und SchülerInnen
Krischler, Mireille UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL

Scientific Conference (2017, September)

„Stereotypen“ werden als sozial geteilte Meinungen über Verhaltensweisen und Persönlichkeitsmerkmale von Mitgliedern einer bestimmten Gruppe verstanden. Stereotypen beeinflussen nicht nur unser Denken und ... [more ▼]

„Stereotypen“ werden als sozial geteilte Meinungen über Verhaltensweisen und Persönlichkeitsmerkmale von Mitgliedern einer bestimmten Gruppe verstanden. Stereotypen beeinflussen nicht nur unser Denken und Verhalten, sondern haben auch Auswirkungen darauf, wie unsere Mitmenschen über sich selber denken und sich dementsprechend verhalten (z.B. Pygmalion Effekt). Aus den stereotyp-basierten Erwartungen gegenüber SchülerInnen mit Förderbedarf können Bildungsungleichheiten und eine reduzierte soziale Partizipation resultieren. Lehrerurteile können beispielsweise von Stereotypen geprägt sein und dementsprechend Bildungswege unangemessen beeinflussen. Ebenso können Schüler, geleitet von ihren stereotyp-basierten Überzeugungen, weniger bereit sein Freundschaften mit MitschülerInnen mit Förderbedarf einzugehen. Gemäss dem „Stereotyp Content Model“ (Fiske u.a., 2002) finden Einschätzungen von Aussengruppen entlang der Dimensionen „Wärme“ und „Kompetenz“ statt. Die „Wärme“ bestimmt dabei ob eine Person als negativ oder positiv wahrgenommen wird, wobei die „Kompetenz“ die Extremität dieses Eindrucks festlegt. Stereotypen sind verbunden mit differenziellen Emotionen. So werden z.B. warme Menschen mit niedriger Kompetenz als angenehm wahrgenommen. Ziel dieser Studie war die Ermittlung ob Überzeugungen über SchülerInnen mit Förderbedarf durch Stereotypen geprägt sind und diese je nach Förderbedarf variieren. Zusätzlich wurde untersucht ob Stereotypen zwischen den verschiedenen Akteuren in der Schule variieren (z.B. abhängig von professioneller Kompetenz). Lehrkräfte, Lehramtsstudierende und Schüler (N=103) bewerteten Schüler mit Verhaltensproblemen und Lernschwierigkeiten anhand von Vignetten in den beiden Dimensionen „Wärme und „Kompetenz“. SchülerInnen sowie Lehramtsstudierende kategorisierten Schüler mit Lernschwierigkeiten und Verhaltensproblemen beide als inkompetent. Schüler mit Verhaltensproblemen wurden zusätzlich auch als relativ kalt eingeschätzt, während Schüler mit Lernschwierigkeiten eher als warm wahrgenommen wurden. Erfahrene Lehrkräfte dagegen, bewerteten die Schüler mit Lernschwierigkeiten als warm aber inkompetent und die Schüler mit Verhaltensproblemen in beiden Dimensionen neutral. Unsere Befunde sind im Einklang mit vorherigen Forschungsergebnissen die belegen, dass Stereotypen je nach Förderbedarf varieren. Da Stereotypen Urteile und Verhalten beeinflussen, deuten unsere Befunde darauf hin, dass sich die Interaktionen mit SchülerInnen mit Lernschwierigkeiten und Verhaltensproblemen voneinander unterscheiden. [less ▲]

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See detailIntervention strategies to improve the quality of teachers´ judgments: Changes in the accuracy of teachers´ transition decisions
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Hörstermann, Thomas UL et al

Scientific Conference (2017, August 30)

This paper focuses on intervention modules to improve teachers’ diagnostic competence, especially in regards to decisions on students’ transition from primary to secondary education. Although these ... [more ▼]

This paper focuses on intervention modules to improve teachers’ diagnostic competence, especially in regards to decisions on students’ transition from primary to secondary education. Although these transition decisions should be based on academic achievement, research has shown non-academic variables to influence decisions, leading to disadvantages for specific groups of students. Using an experimental pre-post design, we investigated the short and long term effects of accountability, theoretical knowledge and the application of prediction rules on teachers’ judgment accuracy, respectively. Pre-intervention data showed that although teachers’ decision accuracy was of high standard, decision accuracy for ethnic majority students was significantly higher than for ethnic minority students. Increased accountability resulted in increased decision accuracy, especially in regards to decisions for ethnic minority students. Similarly, the introduction of theoretical models of decision making and judgment formation and the application of prediction rules also resulted in an improvement of transition decisions but only for ethnic minority students. Unfortunately, the differential intervention effects of the intervention modules could not be maintained over time, that is, at follow up, the ethnicity bias reappeared. From these studies we can conclude that all three intervention modules can improve the accuracy of teachers’ transition decisions. In line with the intention of the interventions, the disproportionally high rate of decision errors for ethnic minority students observed pre-intervention was eliminated post-intervention and in line with error rates for ethnic majority students. However, training or instruction should be repeated briefly before making such judgments as their influence was not maintained over time. [less ▲]

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See detailStereotypes and attitudes towards students with special educational needs in relation to teachers´ attitudes towards inclusive education
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Krischler, Mireille UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL

Scientific Conference (2017, August 30)

Decisions concerning the educational instruction and pathways of students with special educational needs (SEN) may be affected by general stereotypes and associated teachers´ attitudes. Both stereotypes ... [more ▼]

Decisions concerning the educational instruction and pathways of students with special educational needs (SEN) may be affected by general stereotypes and associated teachers´ attitudes. Both stereotypes and attitudes affect judgments and behavior and hence may be pivotal for the success of inclusive education. More specifically, stereotypes and attitudes can elicit positive or negative expectations and judgments, which in turn can enhance or limit the successful inclusion of students with SEN in regular classrooms. The current study investigated stereotypes of and teachers´ implicit attitudes toward students with SEN in relation to teachers´ explicit attitudes towards inclusive education. Results show that teachers hold ambivalent views of students with learning difficulties (i.e. low competence, high warmth), whereas students with behavioral problems are perceived as neither particularly (in)competent nor warm. These stereotypes matched teachers´ implicit attitudes to the extent that implicit attitudes towards students with learning difficulties were more negative than towards students with behavioral problems. Although teachers expressed positive attitudes towards the benefits of inclusion they reported negative attitudes in regards to their ability to teach students with SEN. No associations were found between stereotypes and implicit attitudes. Implicit attitudes towards students with SEN were also not associated with explicit attitudes towards inclusive education. The warmth dimension of stereotype was however positively correlated with perceived ability to teach students with SEN. That is, perceived ability to successfully teach these students may rely on perceptions of these students´ alleged sociability. [less ▲]

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See detailTeachers’ school tracking decisions
Böhmer, Ines; Gräsel, Cornelia; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL et al

in Leutner, Detlev; Fleischer, Jens; Grünkorn, Juliane (Eds.) et al Competence assessment in education: Research, models, and instruments (2017)

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See detailPsychological Test and Assessment Modeling, Special Issue Current Methodological Issues in Educational Large-Scale Assessments - Part II
Stadler, Matthias UL; Greiff, Samuel UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL

in Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling, Special Issue Current Methodological Issues in Educational Large-Scale Assessments – Part II (2017), 59

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See detailDas Übergangsurteil am Ende der Primarstufe: eine Mouselab-Untersuchung zur Informationssuche der Lehrkräfte
Böhmer, Matthias UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Glock, Sabine et al

Scientific Conference (2016, September)

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (8 UL)