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See detailTeachers’ images of the ideal student as a marker for school culture and its role in school alienation during the transition from primary to secondary education in Luxembourg
Grecu, Alyssa Laureen UL; Hascher, Tina; Hadjar, Andreas UL

in Studia Paedagogica (2019), 24(2), 85-108

Particularly in highly stratified educational systems, the transition from primary to secondary school involves a substantial alteration of school culture as students leave their familiar environment of ... [more ▼]

Particularly in highly stratified educational systems, the transition from primary to secondary school involves a substantial alteration of school culture as students leave their familiar environment of primary school and encounter a fundamentally different, initially strange school context. The transition to a new secondary school culture is presumably one cause of students’ increasing school alienation as the students face specific expectations from their secondary teachers. The main aim of this paper is to shed light on the association between the change in school culture represented by the teachers’ image of the ideal student and school alienation in the educational context of Luxembourg. The methodolog y follows a qualitative approach: in-depth interviews and group discussions with teachers from primary and secondary schools were analysed applying a qualitative reconstructive approach. The results confirmed the importance of the transition for students’ educational trajectories and indicated its challenges concerning the changes in demands and values students are expected to meet. Various risk and protective factors concerning the development of school alienation over the course of the transition were identified according to the specific demands of a single school’s cultures. [less ▲]

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See detailDevoutness to Islam and the Attitudinal Acceptance of Political Violence Among Young Muslims in Germany
Hadjar, Andreas UL; Schiefer, David; Boehnke, Klaus et al

in Political Psychology (2019), 40(2), 205-222

This article investigates the links between religious beliefs and capitalist mentalities—namely devoutness to Islam and hierarchic self-interest (HSI)—and violence-accepting attitudes among the young ... [more ▼]

This article investigates the links between religious beliefs and capitalist mentalities—namely devoutness to Islam and hierarchic self-interest (HSI)—and violence-accepting attitudes among the young Muslim migrant population in Germany. Following a situational perspective, these links are analyzed under different individual conditions structured by (socioeconomic) precariousness and education. Based on framing approaches and concepts from socialization theory, we derive the following hypothesis: The links between religious beliefs and capitalist mentalities and the attitudinal acceptance of violence are stronger among individuals with low levels of education and a precarious economic status (compared to high education/non-precarious status). The strongest link is expected for a negative status inconsistency (high education/precarious economic status). Structural equation models for data from a random probability sample of 350 Muslims (aged 14–32 years) in Germany indicate that attitudinal acceptance of violence among young Muslims is not predicted by devoutness to Islam but by economic precariousness and by acceptance of capitalist values of the HSI belief system. [less ▲]

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See detailSchulische Kontexte, Schulentfremdung und Bildungsarmut
Hadjar, Andreas UL; Scharf, Jan; Grecu, Alyssa Laureen UL

in Quenzel, Gudrun; Hurrelmann, Klaus (Eds.) Handbuch Bildungsarmut (2019)

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See detailThe Crowdsourced Replication Initiative: Investigating Immigration and Social Policy Preferences. Executive Report.
Breznau, Nate; Rinke, Eike Mark; Wuttke, Alexander et al

E-print/Working paper (2019)

In an era of mass migration, social scientists, populist parties and social movements raise concerns over the future of immigration-destination societies. What impacts does this have on policy and social ... [more ▼]

In an era of mass migration, social scientists, populist parties and social movements raise concerns over the future of immigration-destination societies. What impacts does this have on policy and social solidarity? Comparative cross-national research, relying mostly on secondary data, has findings in different directions. There is a threat of selective model reporting and lack of replicability. The heterogeneity of countries obscures attempts to clearly define data-generating models. P-hacking and HARKing lurk among standard research practices in this area.This project employs crowdsourcing to address these issues. It draws on replication, deliberation, meta-analysis and harnessing the power of many minds at once. The Crowdsourced Replication Initiative carries two main goals, (a) to better investigate the linkage between immigration and social policy preferences across countries, and (b) to develop crowdsourcing as a social science method. The Executive Report provides short reviews of the area of social policy preferences and immigration, and the methods and impetus behind crowdsourcing plus a description of the entire project. Three main areas of findings will appear in three papers, that are registered as PAPs or in process. [less ▲]

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See detailApplying social production function theory to benefits of schooling: the concept of values of education
Scharf, Jan; Hadjar, Andreas UL; Grecu, Alyssa Laureen UL

in British Journal of Sociology of Education (2019), early online

Many approaches to explaining educational inequalities relate explicitly and implicitly to benefits of education, and rational choice theories in particular consider monetary benefits. We specify a ... [more ▼]

Many approaches to explaining educational inequalities relate explicitly and implicitly to benefits of education, and rational choice theories in particular consider monetary benefits. We specify a concept of the value of education that allows for an empirical analysis of educational benefits, considering both monetary and non-monetary dimensions (instrumental goals) outlined in social production function theory. Our objectives include introducing a sound theoretical framework, the validation of an empirical measurement instrument and an analysis of the differences between certain dimensions of educational values structured by social origin, gender and immigrant background. Analyses are based on a two-wave panel study (SASAL-School Alienation in Switzerland and Luxembourg) carried out in secondary schools in Luxembourg and Switzerland. We distinguish four dimensions within the concept of values of education: stimulation, comfort/status, behavioural confirmation and affection. The different dimensions of the value of education are influenced by gender and immigrant backgrounds in both national settings. [less ▲]

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See detailThe value of education among immigrants and non-immigrants and how this translates into educational aspirations: a comparison of four European countries
Hadjar, Andreas UL; Scharf, Jan UL

in Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies (2019), 45(5), 711-734

Starting out from the frequent empirical finding that immigrants exhibit higher educational aspirations than non-immigrants, we analyse the role of immigrants’ value of education, i.e. the subjective ... [more ▼]

Starting out from the frequent empirical finding that immigrants exhibit higher educational aspirations than non-immigrants, we analyse the role of immigrants’ value of education, i.e. the subjective belief that education is beneficial for one’s life, in idealistic and realistic educational aspirations in four distinct institutional settings, comparing Sweden, Germany, the Netherlands and England. While the first part of the analyses relates to how immigrants differ from non-immigrants in the value they assign to education, the second part centres on country differences considering immigrant integration policies and education systems as crucial factors. A third part relates to the links between the value of education and educational aspirations to gain some insight into how the value of education may contribute to educational decisions. Analyses are based on longitudinal data of the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Survey in Four European Countries (CILS4EU). While results show that immigrants assign a higher value to education, the value of education does play a minor role in idealistic and realistic educational aspirations. The results of the country comparison are rather ambivalent, including very weak support for the argument that immigrants strive for education to a higher extent in countries with less favourable conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailDo students’ language backgrounds explain achievement differences in the Luxembourgish education system?
Simoes Lourêiro, Kevin UL; Hadjar, Andreas UL; Scharf, Jan et al

in Ethnicities (2019), early online

What is the role of students’ language background in school success within the multilingual and highly stratified education system in Luxembourg? Considering achievement differences in terms of the ... [more ▼]

What is the role of students’ language background in school success within the multilingual and highly stratified education system in Luxembourg? Considering achievement differences in terms of the primary effects of social and ethnic origin, we assume that students of a disadvantaged social origin (e.g. working class), with an immigrant background, who speak languages at home other than Luxembourg’s official languages show lower school achievements and are placed into lower school tracks. Analyses are based on the data of Luxembourgish primary (grades 4/5) and secondary students (grades 7/8) from two consecutive survey waves in 2016/2017 (for the international project SASAL – School Alienation in Switzerland and Luxembourg). The results indicate language background has only marginal effects, but social and immigrant origin has stronger effects. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegration und Bildung
Hadjar, Andreas UL; Becker, Rolf

in Pickel, Gert; Decker, Oliver; Kailitz, Steffen (Eds.) et al Handbuch Integration (2019)

Im Rahmen des Beitrags wird die Rolle von Bildung für die Integration auf der individuellen Ebene und der gesellschaftlichen Ebene, und damit für Sozial- und Systemintegration diskutiert. Dabei wird von ... [more ▼]

Im Rahmen des Beitrags wird die Rolle von Bildung für die Integration auf der individuellen Ebene und der gesellschaftlichen Ebene, und damit für Sozial- und Systemintegration diskutiert. Dabei wird von den Funktionen von Bildung – Vermittlung von Kenntnissen und Fähigkeiten, Vergabe von auf dem Arbeitsmarkt umsetzbaren Zertifikaten, Sozialisation von Normen und Werten – ausgegangen. Im theoretischen Teil wird ein Überblick gegeben über Konzeptionen zur Analyse von Bildung und Integration. Im empirischen Teil wird der Forschungsstand im Hinblick auf integrationsrelevante Bildungsfolgen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Folgen der Bildungsexpansion zusammengefasst. [less ▲]

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See detailLes inégalités scolaires dans le système secondaire luxembourgeois dans une perspective dans les temps
Hadjar, Andreas UL; Fischbach, Antoine UL; Backes, Susanne UL

in University of Luxembourg, LUCET; Ministère de l’Éducation nationale, de l’Enfance et de la Jeunesse, SCRIPT (Eds.) Rapport national sur l'éducation au Luxembourg 2018 (2018)

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See detailBildungsungleichheiten im luxemburgischen Sekundarschulsystem aus zeitlicher Perspektive
Hadjar, Andreas UL; Fischbach, Antoine UL; Backes, Susanne UL

in University of Luxembourg, LUCET; Ministère de l’Éducation nationale, de l’Enfance et de la Jeunesse, SCRIPT (Eds.) Nationaler Bildungsbericht Luxemburg 2018 (2018)

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See detailLe régime d’Etat providence joue un rôle dans le bien-être
Samuel, Robin UL; Hadjar, Andreas UL; Brunel, Valentin

E-print/Working paper (2018)

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See detailSchool alienation – Theoretical approaches and educational research
Hascher, Tina; Hadjar, Andreas UL

in Educational Research (2018), 60(2), 171-188

Background: Many primary school students encounter the educational system positively from the outset. However, over the school years, students develop negative attitudes towards school, which peaks during ... [more ▼]

Background: Many primary school students encounter the educational system positively from the outset. However, over the school years, students develop negative attitudes towards school, which peaks during secondary education. According to the literature, we conceptualise this process as school alienation: a decreasing sense of belonging in terms of learning, teachers and classmates at school. Purpose: This article critically examines the research on school alienation, with a focus on primary and secondary education. In this overview, we consider definitions, general conceptual approaches and specific concepts of school alienation, as well as methodological issues, including operationalisations of school alienation. Based on our identification of the strengths and shortcomings of previous theoretical and empirical approaches, we propose a definition and model of school alienation that may guide future research efforts. We argue that future research on school alienation needs to focus on the processes by which school alienation manifests itself; moreover, it must take into account how school alienation can differ with regard to various domains in school (i.e. alienation from learning, from teachers, from classmates). Overall, we argue that instead of an emphasis on general alienation from school, a more specific approach to school alienation is required. Sources of evidence: We used scientific research search engines to identify the body of literature that explicitly studies the phenomenon of school alienation. Firstly, we identified different types of school/student alienation definitions and concepts. Then, we selected papers addressing school alienation as a crucial issue, as well as papers investigating this issue in relation to an outcome, such as violent student behaviour and drop-out, for review. Further, we related our review to comparable concepts, such as disengagement, to show similarities and/or differences. Main argument: The findings of our overview point to a lack of a clear definition of school alienation, a lack of systematic concepts and a diversity of operationalisations based on manifold theoretical approaches. Thus, we propose a contemporary concept of school alienation by bridging different concepts: particularly, the concepts of alienation and disengagement. Our approach specifies core domains to which school alienation is linked: academic learning, teachers and classmates. Furthermore, in regard to each domain, cognitive and affective aspects can be identified, while behavioural aspects are conceptualised as consequences of school alienation. Conclusions: The need for studies aimed at a more profound understanding of the process of school alienation during different stages of educational pathways (such as primary and secondary education) seems to be evident. Panel data are necessary to reconstruct student trajectories in order to take individual changes into account. Different levels of analysis (individual student level/ micro, school or classroom levels/meso, societal level/macro), as well as interaction between these levels, need to be studied. [less ▲]

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See detailSchulische Inklusion in Deutschland, Luxemburg und der Schweiz: Aktuelle Bedingungen und Herausforderungen
Powell, Justin J W UL; Hadjar, Andreas UL

in Rathmann, Katharina; Hurrelmann, Klaus (Eds.) Leistung und Wohlbefinden in der Schule: Herausforderung Inklusion (2018)

Die hohe und gestiegene Bedeutung Inklusiver Bildung – für Individuen und Gesellschaften gleichermaßen – wird global, national, regional und lokal von verschiedensten Akteurinnen und Akteuren ... [more ▼]

Die hohe und gestiegene Bedeutung Inklusiver Bildung – für Individuen und Gesellschaften gleichermaßen – wird global, national, regional und lokal von verschiedensten Akteurinnen und Akteuren hervorgehoben sowie zunehmend auch wissenschaftlich multidisziplinär diskutiert. Inklusive schulische Bildung wird hinsichtlich der Merkmale des Zugangs und der Anwesenheit, der Beteiligung am Unterricht sowie der Teilhabe in Schulaktivitäten sowie in Bezug auf die Lernleistung, respektive deren Zertifizierung, bewertet. Aber auch Aspekte wie Wohlbefinden, Gleichstellung und soziale Integration werden zunehmend thematisiert. Der globale Diskurs um Inklusive Bildung als Menschenrecht geht über die Schulbildung hinaus und betrachtet auch die Hochschulbildung sowie lebenslanges Lernen. Inter- wie intranational werden vergleichende Analysen und Länderberichte immer wichtiger, um den Stand der schulischen Inklusion, der individuellen Verwirklichungschancen sowie der gesellschaftlichen Teilhabe von benachteiligten und behinderten Menschen zu messen. Innerhalb der räumlichen Vielfalt der inklusiven Bildung und sonderpädagogischer Fördersysteme finden sich vielfältige Barrieren, aber auch Katalysatoren inklusiver Bildungsreformen. Die Institutionalisierung sonderpädagogischer Fördersysteme in den deutschsprachigen Ländern, insbesondere über die zweite Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts, als isolierten eigenständigen und differenzierten Teil des Bildungssystems, stellt heutige Ziele inklusiver Bildungsreformen vor große Herausforderungen. In den drei hier untersuchten Ländern stellt Deutschland das differenzierteste und auch am stärksten segregierte System dar, dann folgt die Schweiz mit einem eher separativen Modell innerschulischer Differenzierung und schließlich Luxemburg als im Vergleich kleinstes Land, das aufgrund der spät begonnenen Etablierung von Sondereinrichtungen und seiner Kleinteiligkeit und seiner relativ hohen Schuldichte vergleichsweise günstige Ausgangsbedingungen für schulische Integration darstellt, allerdings – wie die beiden anderen Länder auch – durch die Mehrgliedrigkeit des Schulsystems und räumliche Segregation durch teilweise homogenisierte Lernumwelten gekennzeichnet ist. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of future orientations and future life goals in achievement among secondary school students in Switzerland
Hadjar, Andreas UL; Niedermoser, Daryl Wayne

in Journal of Youth Studies (2018), early online

Focusing on the agency feature of considering the future, we study the role of general future orientations and specific future life goals in educational achievement (Grade Point Average) and related ... [more ▼]

Focusing on the agency feature of considering the future, we study the role of general future orientations and specific future life goals in educational achievement (Grade Point Average) and related educational inequalities. These factors are more remote from the outcome of educational attainment than are such frequently studied predictors as educational aspirations. Our research areas include: a) the link between future orientations and educational achievement; b) the link between certain future life goals (conceptualised along the lines of the values circumplex of Schwartz 1992) and achievement; and c) differences in future orientations and future life goals constituted by social origin and gender. Our analyses are based on a data set of Swiss eighthgraders (N = 772). While information on school marks is of an administrative nature (teachers’ records) and related to the end of the term, all other variables were gathered during term time from the students. However, some of the findings are counter-intuitive, such as anticipation of the future not being positively associated with achievement. Although the results indicate certain disparities in future goals, they only explain some part of the disparities in achievement. [less ▲]

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See detailEducational Trajectories Through Secondary Education in Luxembourg: How does Permeability Affect Educational Inequalities?
Backes, Susanne UL; Hadjar, Andreas UL

in Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Bildungswissenschaften = Rivista Svizzera di Scienze dell' Educazione = Revue Suisse des Sciences de l'Education (2017), 39(3), 437-460

The link between stratification and educational inequality in empirical research is well documented. Some countries – particularly those that do not follow the model of comprehensive schools – discuss the ... [more ▼]

The link between stratification and educational inequality in empirical research is well documented. Some countries – particularly those that do not follow the model of comprehensive schools – discuss the possibility of increasing permeability between school tracks to reduce inequalities. This paper focuses on the occurrence of permeability in the stratified school system of Luxembourg and examines what this permeability entails for certain risk groups, specifically students from lower social background, male students and migrants. Educational pathways were classified (cluster analysis) on the basis of an administrative panel data set (n=5301); mechanisms behind educational decisions were analysed as a second step by estimating logistic regressions (Boudon, 1974). The findings show that reorientations in Luxembourg are often determined by the students’ social group, and that permeability – as blurred educational boundaries – mainly reproduces disparities in track placement. Introduction [less ▲]

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See detailAuthoritarianism
Hadjar, Andreas UL; Boehnke, Klaus

in Stein, John (Ed.) Reference Module in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology (2017)

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See detailSchool Alienation: A Construct Validation Study
Morinaj, Julia; Scharf, Jan UL; Grecu, Alyssa Laureen UL et al

in Frontline Learning Research (2017), 5(2), 36-59

Early identification of school alienation is of great importance for students’ educational outcomes and successful participation in society. This study examined the psychometric characteristics of a newly ... [more ▼]

Early identification of school alienation is of great importance for students’ educational outcomes and successful participation in society. This study examined the psychometric characteristics of a newly developed assessment instrument, the School Alienation Scale (SALS), to measure school alienation among primary and secondary school students. The SALS consists of three school-related domains, namely, classmates, teachers, and learning. Based on the responses of Swiss (1) and Luxembourgish (2) students from two schoolspecific cohorts — primary (grade 4; n1=486, n2=503) and secondary schools (grade 7; n1=550, n2=534), we assessed instrument reliability, validity, and cross-cultural equivalence. The scale showed evidence of reliability and internal validity across two samples, confirming that the hypothesized first-order three-factor model fits the data better than several alternative models. The results of measurement invariance tests revealed that the measurement model operated equally well for primary and secondary school students in both countries. The construct validity of the SALS was additionally supported by demonstrated criterion-related validity. Specifically, school alienation domains were negatively associated with positive attitudes to and enjoyment in school; social problems in school were positively related to alienation from classmates and teachers. Our key contributions to the measurement of school alienation are the disclosure of the core domains of school alienation, development of a reliable and valid instrument, and justification for its use. Therefore, the results of this study have important implications for further theoretical work in alienation research and contribute to comparative research by examining the construct of school alienation in different educational settings. [less ▲]

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See detailMeritokratie: Zur gesellschaftlichen Legitimation ungleicher Bildungs-, Erwerbs- und Einkommenschancen in modernen Gesellschaften
Becker, Rolf; Hadjar, Andreas UL

in Becker, Rolf (Ed.) Lehrbuch der Bildungssoziologie. 3. aktualisierte und überarbeitete Auflage (2017)

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See detailErwartete und unerwartete Folgen der Bildungsexpansion
Hadjar, Andreas UL; Becker, Rolf

in Becker, Rolf (Ed.) Lehrbuch der Bildungssoziologie. 3. aktualisierte und überarbeitete Auflage (2017)

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