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See detailMigratory pathways for start-ups and innovative entrepreneurs in the EU and Norway (Country report Luxembourg)
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Petry, Ralph UL; Coda, Nicolas UL et al

Report (2019)

The main objective of this study of the European Migration Network is to provide objective and reliable information about migratory pathways for start-ups and innovative entrepreneurs to Luxembourg ... [more ▼]

The main objective of this study of the European Migration Network is to provide objective and reliable information about migratory pathways for start-ups and innovative entrepreneurs to Luxembourg. Fostering start-ups and innovative enterprises is a national policy priority for Luxembourg as providing support to entrepreneurship and start-ups has been on the Luxembourgish governments’ agenda since 2013. It has been a part of a more general diversification policy of existing economic structures in order to increase economic growth of the country and reduce dependence on the financial sector, which remains the dominant economic pillar. The current Governmental programme 2018–2023 encourages support to start-ups, the acceleration of the development of the start-up ecosystem in Luxembourg as well as the promotion of Luxembourg as a ‘start-up nation’ both at national and international level. What should be pointed out is that this policy is not specifically targeted at third-country start-ups and innovative entrepreneurs, but aims to attract international investment, (innovative) enterprises and researchers in general. Thus, the mainstream immigration policy established by the amended Law of 29 August 2008 on free movement of persons (hereafter referred to as ‘Immigration Law’) for ‘self-employed worker’ or ‘investor’ residence permits is applied. The conditions that need to be fulfilled in order to be issued either a ‘self-employed worker’ or ‘investor’ residence permit as well as the conditions for the renewal of the residence permits are explained in detail in Section 3.3 and in Section 5, respectively. Several of the stakeholders involved in the context of this study reported that the existing regulations are sufficient and there is no need to introduce new ones or ones that would specifically target third-country nationals. Several initiatives have implemented in order to support the development of innovation in Luxembourg. Luxinnovation, the National Agency for the promotion of Research, Development and Innovation, was established already in 1985 and currently is reinforcing Government’s economic development objectives by providing support to companies and researchers in order to foster innovation. One of these initiatives, launched by the Ministry of the Economy in 2015 and implemented by Luxinnovation, is the Fit4Start acceleration programme which is particularly aimed at innovative ICT start-ups and recently also at start-ups from the health technologies. This programme provides coaching, business development support and funding to innovative projects or young innovative start-ups from around the world. Another important policy in the context of this study is the amended Law of 17 May 2017 on the Promotion of Research, Development and Innovation which provides a national funding scheme for Young Innovative Enterprises. Under this scheme, unlisted small enterprises that are registered for a maximum of five years can apply for State aid at the Ministry of the Economy’s Research and Innovation Directorate. Furthermore, Luxinnovation also animates the Luxembourg Cluster Initiative established by the Government in 2002. The objective of this initiative is to encourage communication and exchange of knowledge between cluster members (involving both the public and private sector) as well as to encourage use of new technologies and identification of possible business opportunities. This study further presents a table of rights and incentive measures in place to attract start-up founders and particularly highlights the access to special funding and investments, the co-working spaces as well as the access to incubation/accelerator support programmes, among others. In addition to the elements presented above, this study also elaborates on the following questions: What is the process and what are the requirements for starting up a business in Luxembourg? What are the main sectors and industries in which Luxembourg aims to attract start-ups? What is the role of local and regional authorities in creating and supporting entrepreneurial ecosystems? What role can actors such as local authorities, the private sector or higher education institutions play in attracting start-ups? Are there factors/conditions in place that incentivise start-ups and innovative entrepreneurs to use specific immigration routes? Lastly, with the use of fictional scenarios, four case studies aim to provide an understanding of the possible admission options of different types of start-ups and innovative entrepreneurs. [less ▲]

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See detailAttirer et retenir des étudiants internationaux au Luxembourg
Petry, Ralph UL; Coda, Nicolas UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL et al

Article for general public (2019)

La note de synthèse présente les principaux résultats de l’étude réalisée en 2018 par le Point de contact Luxembourgeois du Réseau Européen des Migrations intitulée : « Attracting and retaining ... [more ▼]

La note de synthèse présente les principaux résultats de l’étude réalisée en 2018 par le Point de contact Luxembourgeois du Réseau Européen des Migrations intitulée : « Attracting and retaining international students in the EU ». Cette étude fournit un aperçu des politiques et pratiques en vigueur au Luxembourg afin d’attirer et de retenir des étudiants internationaux. Elle se base essentiellement sur les informations recueillies jusqu’en novembre 2018 et n’englobe donc que peu d’évolutions qui ont pu se produire après cette date. [less ▲]

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See detailLe voyage des bénéficiaires de la protection internationale dans leur pays d'origine: défis, politiques et pratiques au Luxembourg
Jacobs, Sarah UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Coda, Nicolas UL et al

Article for general public (2019)

Cette note de synthèse présente les principaux résultats de l’étude réalisée en 2018 par le point de contact luxembourgeois du Réseau européen des migrations intitulée « Les bénéficiaires de la protection ... [more ▼]

Cette note de synthèse présente les principaux résultats de l’étude réalisée en 2018 par le point de contact luxembourgeois du Réseau européen des migrations intitulée « Les bénéficiaires de la protection internationale qui voyagent dans leur pays d’origine: défis, politiques et pratiques ». Dans plusieurs Etats membres de l’Union européenne, les autorités ont détecté des bénéficiaires de protection internationale (ci-après bpi) ayant voyagé dans leur pays d’origine ou demandé un passeport à l’ambassade ou consulat de leur pays d’origine. Si ces actes ne représentent pas nécessairement un abus du droit à la protection internationale, ils pourraient, dans certains cas et dans certaines circonstances, amener les autorités à considérer que les raisons d’octroi de la protection internationale ont cessé d’exister : à savoir la crainte fondée de persécution dans le pays d’origine pour le réfugié ou le risque réel d’y subir des atteintes graves pour le bénéficiaire de la protection subsidiaire. L’étude vise à apporter un éclairage sur les défis liés à la détection de ce phénomène et s’intéresse aux éventuelles conséquences de ces actes sur le statut de protection internationale, en particulier la cessation du statut qui pourrait en résulter. [less ▲]

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See detailAttracting and retaining international students in the EU (Country report Luxembourg)
Petry, Ralph UL; Coda, Nicolas UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL et al

Report (2018)

Unlike many other EU Member States, the higher education system in Luxembourg is marked by a particular characteristic, namely the fact that the University of Luxembourg is the only public university in ... [more ▼]

Unlike many other EU Member States, the higher education system in Luxembourg is marked by a particular characteristic, namely the fact that the University of Luxembourg is the only public university in the country. Established by law in 2003, the University of Luxembourg is therefore the main actor in the higher education system and hosts the large majority of international students in Luxembourg. In addition to the University of Luxembourg, two more types of institutions complement the higher education system in Luxembourg and are recognised by the Ministry of Higher Education and Research as higher education institutions (hereafter referred to as ‘HEIs’), namely: 1. Secondary educational institutions offering educational programmes that award an advanced technician’s certificate (‘Brevet de technicien supérieur’ – ‘BTS’); 2. Private foreign universities having infrastructures or campus in Luxembourg. In order to be able to award higher education diplomas as well as to host international students, all HEIs are mandatorily required to be approved by the Ministry of Higher Education and Research, with the exception of the University of Luxembourg because it was established by law. The admission conditions for international students to study at a HEI in Luxembourg are twofold: First, the international student must apply and be accepted at an approved HEI or at the University of Luxembourg. Second, once accepted at a HEI, s/he needs to apply for a temporary authorisation of stay, and subsequently, if applicable, a Visa D (valid for 3 months), from his/her country of origin before being authorised to travel to Luxembourg and before being issued a ‘student’ residence permit (valid for minimum 1 year and renewable) in Luxembourg. To conclude, the HEIs in Luxembourg, under the overall auspice of the Ministry of Higher Education and Research, as well as the immigration authorities are the main stakeholders in the context of international students studying in Luxembourg. Luxembourg transposed the Directive (EU) 2016/801 by the Law of 1 August 2018, which amended the amended ‘Immigration Law’ and entered into force on 21 September 2018. In this context, the study highlights in particular the introduction of a new residence permit for ‘private reasons’ in view of seeking employment or establishing a business in Luxembourg. This residence permit was newly introduced by the transposition of the Directive and allows international graduates to remain in the country for a maximum duration of nine months in order to find a job or establish a business in relation to their academic training. Prior to the transposition, international students were only able to change their immigration status to ‘salaried worker’ immediately after their graduation. Moreover, the transposition modified a number of legal dispositions, such as the increase of the maximum amount of hours that students are authorised to work, from 10 hours to 15 hours per week. Furthermore, Bachelor students enrolled in their first year of academic studies as well as students enrolled in a study programme awarding them a ‘BTS’ are no longer excluded from exercising a salaried activity as allowed by law. Lastly, the transposition also facilitates the intra-European mobility of international students who follow a European or multilateral programme that contains mobility measures or a convention between two or more HEIs. The attraction and retention of international students are not considered as a national political priority per se by the Luxembourgish authorities, but have to be perceived in an overall national political priority of attracting “talents” to Luxembourg, i.e. (highly) qualified persons, regardless of their nationality and in the interest of the country and its economy. The stakeholders consulted in the context of this study identified several factors that may have positive effects on the attraction and retention of international students. These include, among others: - the geographical position of Luxembourg with an important financial sector and several European institutions - the multilingual environment of the country as well as the University of Luxembourg - the HEI ranking of the University of Luxembourg - the comparatively low levels of tuition fees, particularly of the national public HEIs - the fact that the level tuition fees is the same for every student, no matter his/her nationality, with the exception of examples from private HEIs Furthermore, the consulted stakeholders identified several examples of good practices in the context of this study, such as for example: - A close and diligent collaboration between all stakeholders, in particular between the Directorate of Immigration, the Ministry of Higher Education and Research and the University of Luxembourg - Quality management of private HEI (mainly through the approval procedure) in view of the best interest of students - Affordable tuitions fees in the higher education system At the same time, the consulted stakeholders have identified several challenges, such as: - the languages of instruction (with a strong emphasis on French and German especially at the Bachelor/‘BTS’ levels) and the primary working languages (French and Luxembourgish) - socio-economic factors, particularly the high costs of living and the challenge of finding affordable housing - authenticity and veracity of transmitted diplomas in the context of a diploma recognition - a challenging procedure related to the entrance exam for international students who hold a high school diploma issued in a country that is not a signatory country of Paris/Lisbon conventions - potential misuse of the ‘student’ residence permit in view of trying to stay in the country instead of succeeding in the studies. In addition to the major legislative change introduced by the transposition of the Directive and the various factors and challenges mentioned above, the study also highlights a number of initiatives, offered in particular by the University of Luxembourg, aiming to support international students after their graduation and to encourage them to establish and/or maintain a connection to the national labour market. The study concludes with a section on bilateral and multilateral cooperation with third countries, both at the level of the Luxembourgish State as well as at the level of HEIs, particularly of the University of Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailL’efficacité du retour dans les États membres de l’UE: défis et bonnes pratiques dans l’application des règles européennes en matière de retour
Petry, David UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Coda, Nicolas UL et al

Article for general public (2018)

Le retour des ressortissants de pays tiers en séjour irrégulier est l‘un des principaux piliers de la politique de l‘UE en matière de migration et d‘asile. Dans son plan d‘action sur le retour en 2015 et ... [more ▼]

Le retour des ressortissants de pays tiers en séjour irrégulier est l‘un des principaux piliers de la politique de l‘UE en matière de migration et d‘asile. Dans son plan d‘action sur le retour en 2015 et dans sa communication de 2017 relative à une politique de retour plus efficace et la recommandation qui l‘a accompagnée, la Commission a souligné la nécessité d‘une mise en œuvre plus stricte des règles européennes en la matière. Cette note de synthèse présente les principaux résultats de l’étude réalisée en 2017 par le point de contact de l´European Migration Network au Luxembourg intitulée «L’efficacité du retour dans les Etats membres de l’UE: défis et bonnes pratiques dans l’application des règles européennes en matière de retour» ainsi que du rapport synthétique qui en résulte. L’étude se base sur les informations recueillies jusqu’au mois de juillet 2017. Cette note de synthèse vise à analyser l‘impact des règles européennes sur le retour ainsi que sur les politiques et pratiques mises en œuvre dans les différents États membres. Elle présente également la manière dont les normes et procédures européennes ont été interprétées et appliquées au niveau national et, dans la mesure du possible, leur impact sur l‘efficacité du dispositif de retour. Toutefois, une certaine prudence s’impose tant il est difficile d‘établir des liens de causalité entre des mesures politiques spécifiques et le nombre de retours mis en œuvre. [less ▲]

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See detailDéfis et pratiques dans l’établissement de l’identité des demandeurs lors des processus migratoires
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Coda, Nicolas UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Article for general public (2018)

La note de synthèse présente les principaux résultats de l’étude réalisée en 2017 par le Point de contact Luxembourgeois du Réseau Européen des Migrations intitulée : « Défis et pratiques dans ... [more ▼]

La note de synthèse présente les principaux résultats de l’étude réalisée en 2017 par le Point de contact Luxembourgeois du Réseau Européen des Migrations intitulée : « Défis et pratiques dans l’établissement de l’identité des demandeurs lors des processus migratoires ». Cette étude vise à présenter un aperçu des principaux défis auxquels les autorités compétentes au Luxembourg sont confrontées lors de l’établissement et de la vérification de l’identité des ressortissants de pays-tiers dans le cadre des différentes procédures de migration (asile, retour, migration légale) ainsi que des pratiques mises en œuvre pour relever ces défis. Cette note se base essentiellement sur les informations recueillies jusqu’en juillet 2017 et n’englobe donc que peu d’évolutions qui ont pu se produire après cette date. [less ▲]

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