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See detailCultures of care in aging
Boll, Thomas UL; Ferring, Dieter UL; Valsiner, Jaan

Book published by Information Age Publishing (in press)

Care for elderly persons has many facets and is influenced by many factors of the care-dependent person, the care giver(s) and the micro-, and macro-social context. A co-operation of multiple disciplines ... [more ▼]

Care for elderly persons has many facets and is influenced by many factors of the care-dependent person, the care giver(s) and the micro-, and macro-social context. A co-operation of multiple disciplines is required to better understand phenomena of elder care and to act adequately in this field. This is even more urgent given the increasing population aging and the impending gaps between demand and supply of care. The present book provides a first substantive integration of knowledge from geropsychology, other gerosciences, and cultural psychologies to reach these goals —through a multi-disciplinary and international cast of authors. Macro-social context—including demographic, historical, political, normative, and other cultural factors—turned out to open and limit the available options for individual care giving and receipt and shapes how these issues are experienced by the participants in elder care. Elder care is shown to be far more complex than previously thought, because its consequences extend beyond single care givers to multigenerational caring families. Thinking, feeling and acting in relation to care dependency, caregiving and care receipt emerged as being influenced by multiple individual and social level factors. Future issues of elder care are seen as being shaped to a large extent by macro level factors such as population aging, social trends in job and family life, and development of assistive technologies. All this has far reaching implications for ensuring quality of care and the life quality on part of care recipients and care providers and for the coherence of social communities. [less ▲]

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See detailEmotional ambivalence in adult children of care-dependent older parents: Heuristic impulses from cognitive-motivational emotion theories
Boll, Thomas UL

in Albert, Isabelle; Abbey, Emily; Valsiner, Jaan (Eds.) Cultural psychology of transgenerational family relations: Investigating ambivalences (in press)

Emotional ambivalence of adult children of care-dependent older parents is analyzed from the perspective of cognitive-motivational theories of emotion. Emotional ambivalence is conceived of as the co ... [more ▼]

Emotional ambivalence of adult children of care-dependent older parents is analyzed from the perspective of cognitive-motivational theories of emotion. Emotional ambivalence is conceived of as the co-presence of positive and negative emotions toward the multifaceted care situation involving these major elements: Multiple problems of the elderly parent, multiple caregiving tasks of the adult child, and multiple gains and losses for the elderly parent and for the adult child. In line with cognitive-motivational theories, positive and negative emotions are thought of as arising from mental comparisons between what adult children desire and what they believe with respect to the various facets of the care situation. Perceived fulfillment of such desires is assumed to lead to positive emotions (happiness, hope, moral pride, etc.) and perceived frustration to result in negative emotions (pity, fear, guilt, etc.) related to the elderly parent, oneself, or other family members. Because adult children usually have multiple desires (e.g., own welfare, welfare of older parent, welfare of other family members) which may be perceived as fulfilled in some areas and unfulfilled in others, various combinations of positive and negative emotions and thus emotional ambivalence is assumed to arise toward various aspects of the care situation. An illustrative application of this theoretical approach is given to a major care-related event, namely, the transition of an elderly parent to a nursing home. In conclusion, benefits for research and practice in the field of elder care (measurement, description, understanding, management, and positive functions of emotional ambivalence) are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailA systematic review of self-care assistive technologies for aging population
Abrilahij, Afsaneh UL; Boll, Thomas UL

in Boll, Thomas; Ferring, Dieter; Valsiner, Jaan (Eds.) Cultures of care in aging (in press)

A gradual decline in functional and mental capacity as well as a growing risk of care dependency constitute major concerns of life in old age. These should become larger and more urgent in future, because ... [more ▼]

A gradual decline in functional and mental capacity as well as a growing risk of care dependency constitute major concerns of life in old age. These should become larger and more urgent in future, because the number of people 80+ is projected to more than double from 2010 to 2050 at least in EU and OECD countries. On the other side, there is a strong desire of older people, their relatives and policy makers to maintain the autonomy in old age as long as possible. In reaction to this, there have been strong social policy recommendations to develop and promote the use of assistive technologies (ATs). Whereas systematic reviews already exist for several other kinds of ATs, reviews about self-care ATs are still missing. Based on systematic literature searches in PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar databases 203 papers were identified of which 12 were included according to our selection criteria. The methodological quality of all the reviewed studies is evaluated. We reviewed findings on indicators of independent living as efficiency criteria as well as evidence about facilitators and barriers of using these technologies. Self-care ATs turned out to be efficient with respect to reduced care hours and increased independence level. The actual use of these ATs was associated with personal, contextual, and device factors. Lack of randomized control trial studies and a need for further research about ATs in several domains of self-care activities is revealed. Based on the findings of the current review, we generate recommendations for future research. [less ▲]

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See detailScientific and legal concepts of care dependency: Role for understanding, emotional responding, and acting in the field of elder care
Boll, Thomas UL; Ferring, Dieter UL

in Boll, Thomas; Ferring, Dieter; Valsiner, Jaan (Eds.) Cultures of care in aging (in press)

In this chapter, we analyze scientific and legal concepts of care dependency and explore their roles for understanding, emotional responding, and acting of various participants in the field of elder care ... [more ▼]

In this chapter, we analyze scientific and legal concepts of care dependency and explore their roles for understanding, emotional responding, and acting of various participants in the field of elder care. First, two comprehensive concepts from the nursing sciences are contrasted. Then we compare a scientific and two legal concepts (restrictive vs. inclusive) of care dependency from the German long-term care (LTC) system, the last of which regulate older persons´ access to LTC benefits. Here, we consider their different implications for the risk of unmet psychological, social, and temporary care needs. Next, we examine the theoretical and methodological roles of different care dependency concepts for assessment as well as the analysis of prevalence, antecedents, consequences, and the management of care dependency. Following this, we explore possible functions of care dependency concepts as cognitive mediators of various agents’ activities related to elder care, which opens new topics for further research. Among these, we include the ascription of care dependency by various actors, older people´s self-presentation, and family carers´ presentation and LTC administrators´ evaluation of an older person´s care dependency. Further issues addressed are the education of professional care workers and professionals´ provision of elder care. Here, special attention is devoted to the implications of a shift from a restrictive to a more inclusive legal concept of care dependency as recently happened in Germany. Finally, we discuss the implications of inclusive legal concepts of care dependency for the improvement of elder care quality [less ▲]

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See detailCare in aging: Cross-fertilization within and between Geropsychology, other gerosciences, and Cultural Psychology
Boll, Thomas UL; Ferring, Dieter UL; Valsiner, Jaan

in Boll, Thomas; Ferring, Dieter; Valsiner, Jaan (Eds.) Cultures of care in aging (in press)

Care for elderly persons is multifaceted and embedded in a rich socio-ecological context of individual, micro-, and macro-social factors. This complexity requires multidisciplinary perspectives to better ... [more ▼]

Care for elderly persons is multifaceted and embedded in a rich socio-ecological context of individual, micro-, and macro-social factors. This complexity requires multidisciplinary perspectives to better understand phenomena of elder care and to act successfully in this field. In the final chapter of a multidisciplinary book with contributions from geropsychology, other gerosciences, and cultural psychology the editors draw conclusions about major topics, new insights, and further implications for research and practice. The conclusions refer to four domains. First, the macro-social context—including demographic, historical, political, normative, and other cultural factors—opens and limits the available options for individual care giving and receipt and shapes how these issues are experienced by the participants. Second, elder care at the individual and family level is far more complex than previously thought, due to differentiated individual and social care preferences and due to consequences extending beyond single caregivers to multigenerational caring families. Third, processes involved in formal and informal care turned out to be rather differentiated: Understanding, emotional responding, motivation and acting towards suffering, care dependency and caregiver burden are influenced by multiple individual and social level factors. Fourth, future issues of elder care are shaped by macro level factors such as population aging, social trends in job and family life, and technological developments with implications for ensuring care quality, care staff, culturally sensitive care, and assistive technologies. Cultural psychology emerged as a valuable partner of the gerosciences by contributing essentially to a deeper understanding of the aforementioned issues. [less ▲]

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See detailCulture in the Act of Caring: Bringing Geropsychology, other gerosciences, and Cultural Psychology together
Boll, Thomas UL; Ferring, Dieter UL; Valsiner, Jaan

in Boll, Thomas; Ferring, Dieter; Valsiner, Jaan (Eds.) Cultures of care in aging (in press)

In the introduction of a multidisciplinary book on the role of culture in elder care the editors set the stage for a substantive integration of contributions from geropsychology, other gerosciences, and ... [more ▼]

In the introduction of a multidisciplinary book on the role of culture in elder care the editors set the stage for a substantive integration of contributions from geropsychology, other gerosciences, and cultural psychology. The authors present arguments for a life-span developmental perspective on care for the elderly and extend this to geropsychology as subsection of life-span developmental psychology. They further emphasize that these disciplines consider to some extent the role of cultural and other contextual factors and that other gerosciences specialized on historical, political, health-and nursing-related aspects of elder care can further supplement this effort. Then three major streams of cultural psychology are mentioned which are particularly relevant to topics of caring: Dialogical Self Theory, Theory of Social Representations, and Cultural Psychology of Semiotic Dynamics. The authors conclude that an increasing population aging and growing gaps between demand and supply of care create a serious practical need for an integration of geropsychology, other gerosciences, and cultural psychologies to achieve a better understanding of the individual, interpersonal, and macro social processes involved in elder care. [less ▲]

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See detailSelf-care Assistive Technologies: A systematic review of studies on efficiency and factors influencing their use
Abrilahij, Afsaneh UL; Boll, Thomas UL; Ferring, Dieter UL

Scientific Conference (2017, July 05)

A gradual decline in functional and mental capacity, as well as a growing risk of care dependency constitute major concerns of life in old age. These are expected to become more urgent in the future ... [more ▼]

A gradual decline in functional and mental capacity, as well as a growing risk of care dependency constitute major concerns of life in old age. These are expected to become more urgent in the future, because the old-age dependency ratio in the EU is projected to nearly double until 2060 due to demographic change. On the other side, there is a strong desire to maintain the autonomy of older people as long as possible. In reaction to this, there have been strong health and social policy recommendations across Europe to develop and promote the use of assistive technologies (ATs). Whereas systematic reviews already exist for several kinds of ATs, reviews about self-care ATs are still missing. Based on a systematic literature search in PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar databases 203 papers were identified of which 13 were included according to our selection criteria. The methodological quality of all the reviewed studies is evaluated. We reviewed findings on objective and subjective indicators of independent living as efficiency criteria as well as evidence about facilitating and inhibiting factors in the use of these technologies. Self-care ATs turned out to be efficient, with respect to care hours, independence level, and self-reported satisfaction. The actual use of these ATs was influenced by diverse personal, contextual, and device aspects. Lack of randomized control trial studies and the need for a further research about ATs in the diverse subdomains of self-care activities is revealed. Based on the findings of the current study, we generate recommendations for future research. [less ▲]

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See detailGains and losses of caring for an older relative and the indication for geropsychological intervention
Ferring, Dieter UL; Boll, Thomas UL

Scientific Conference (2017)

Caring for a close person involves and impacts several aspects and domains of personal life. A scenario that is often sketched here indicates that caring is physically exhausting, demanding time, leaving ... [more ▼]

Caring for a close person involves and impacts several aspects and domains of personal life. A scenario that is often sketched here indicates that caring is physically exhausting, demanding time, leaving no time for leisure, and excluding the carer from further social activities. In this view, caring is strain as it is clearly described by the concept of caregiver burden, and a risk for the psychological and/or physical health of family carers. But caring may also have another side of positive gratification and of fulfilment. To care for another person may represent a meaningful work for both the cared for and the caring person that may also go along with recognition and positive feedback from others. This is the starting point of the present study that addressed a sample of 151 informal carers (n = 111 female) with a mean age of 58 years (SD=14 years) with self-report questionnaire. The measure offered in a first part positive (n=35) and negative aspects (n=23) of caring for a close person and subjects had to rate how much they agree that these aspects are present in their own care giving relationship. Moreover, life satisfaction as well as positive and negative affect were assessed in a second part. Multivariate analyses by factor as well as cluster analyses showed different profiles of gains and losses that were systematically linked to indicators of subjective well-being. Findings will be discussed with respect to their implications for psychosocial intervention in the field of informal care. [less ▲]

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See detailInterventions addressing subjective well-being in ageing: Promissing approaches on individual and societal level
Boll, Thomas UL; Ferring, Dieter UL

Poster (2016, June)

Subjective well-being (SWB) in aging is important not only as an indicator of positive aging, but also because of its effects on relevant outcomes for the person (e.g., health) and the community (e.g ... [more ▼]

Subjective well-being (SWB) in aging is important not only as an indicator of positive aging, but also because of its effects on relevant outcomes for the person (e.g., health) and the community (e.g., involvements). This raises the question of how SWB of older people can be improved through interventions. Our contribution focusses on three domains for improving SWB: Optimization of resources (e.g., financial situation, autonomy), help with critical life events (e.g., widowhood, disablement), and support at the end of life. We consider reasons for optimizing SWB in these areas as well as the theoretical and empirical foundation for interventions. Among them are (1) bottom-up approaches regarding the link between domain-specific SWB (e.g., regarding health, financial situation, social relationships) and global SWB, (2) Coping approaches to critical life events frequently occuring in old age (e.g., widowhood, disablement) and (3) research on terminal decline of SWB. Against this background principal possibilities of optimizing SWB in these domains are delineated and both individual and societal (e.g., communal, national) level interventions are described. [less ▲]

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See detailOpening: Concept of the book, goals and program of the workshop on cultures of care
Boll, Thomas UL; Ferring, Dieter UL; Valsiner, Jaan

Scientific Conference (2015, September)

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See detailSocial policy measures for improving subjective well-being in later life: Issues of theoretical and empirical foundation
Boll, Thomas UL; Ferring, Dieter UL

Scientific Conference (2014, September 15)

Subjective well-being (SWB) in later life is important not just as an indicator of life quality, of mental health and of successful aging of older people, but also because of its effects on individually ... [more ▼]

Subjective well-being (SWB) in later life is important not just as an indicator of life quality, of mental health and of successful aging of older people, but also because of its effects on individually or socially relevant outcomes (e.g. health, social engagement). This raises the question about the extent to which and under what conditions SWB of older people can be improved by social policy measures (SPM). Our presentation examines theoretical and empirical issues related to answering this question. A first theoretical topic considers the relevance of bottom-up vs. top-down approaches conceptualizing the link between domain-specific satisfaction (e.g., with health, financial situation, social relationships) and global life satisfaction in old age. A second issue concerns the theoretical status of SWB in causal networks, i.e., SWB as consequence, as cause, as mediator and as moderator variable. A third topic refers to what can be derived from different theoretical approaches to SWB about whether and when SPM should have an effect of SWB in later life. Following that several empirical questions with respect to improving SWB of older people through SPM are considered. First, we discuss whether the present level of SWB in older adults (or subgroups thereof) indicates a demand for improving SWB. Second, we look at the importance of SWB for individually and socially desirable outcomes (e.g., on health, community involvement) by providing specific evidence which can provide further reasons for improving SWB through SPM. Third, we examine which life circumstances (e.g., financial situation, functional status), life events (e.g., becoming disabled) and individual activities (e.g., volunteering) are known to be significantly related to SWB and which of these conditions could principally be improved through SPM. Fourth, we discuss existing and needed empirical evidence for the effects of local, regional, national SPM on SWB in later life. We emphasize that past research has already produced an impressive body of knowledge relevant for improving SWB in older people through SPM, but that further theoretical and empirical efforts are needed to provide such SPM with a richer foundation. We conclude that better strategies for communicating results of research about SWB to policy makers should be elaborated so that these can have more impact on policy decisions about SPM. [less ▲]

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See detailAmbivalence in family caregivers for older people: Emotion-theoretical views
Boll, Thomas UL

Scientific Conference (2014, June 26)

Ambivalences in family caregivers for older people are analysed from an emotion-theoretical point of view and the benefits of this approach are delineated. The topic is confined to psychological ... [more ▼]

Ambivalences in family caregivers for older people are analysed from an emotion-theoretical point of view and the benefits of this approach are delineated. The topic is confined to psychological ambivalence as an experience of the individual with a special emphasis on emotional ambivalence as co-presence of positive and negative emotions about the various aspects of adult children’s care provision. The stage for understanding mixed emotions in this context is set through a description of the multi-facetted nature of the caregiving situation: (1) Various difficulties of the older parent (e.g., diseases, problems with activities of daily living, suffering), (2) multiple tasks of the caring adult child (e.g., skilled nursing, help with daily activities, emotional support provision), and (3) several gains and losses for the older person and the caring child. The generation of positive and negative emotions is analysed from a cognitive point of view according to which emotions toward caregiving arise from subjective appraisals of the various facets of the caregiving situation. These appraisals are, in turn, conceived to consist in comparisons between what adult children desire and what they believe with respect to the caregiving situation. Fulfillments of such desires are assumed to lead to positive emotions (joy, pride, admiration, etc.) and frustrations of such desires are assumed to result in negative emotions (sadness, pity, guilt feelings, etc.). Because adult children have multiple desires (e.g., own welfare, welfare of old parent, welfare of other relatives) and multiple beliefs about the caregiving situation, various combinations of positive and negative emotions and thus ambivalences are expected and described. This kind of analysis is further applied to emotional ambivalences about “big care decisions” (e.g., initiating nursing home admission) and “small care decisions” (e.g., taking a care off-time over the weekend). In concluding, heuristic benefits of this emotional-theoretical approach are summarized: Options for a refined description, measurement, understanding and management of emotional ambivalences in the context of intergenerational caregiving. [less ▲]

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See detailPflege alter Menschen in der Familie: Emotionen, Ziele und Handlungsmöglichkeiten von Angehörigen
Boll, Thomas UL

Scientific Conference (2013, November 27)

Familienangehörige sind die wichtigsten informellen Pflegepersonen alter Menschen. Der vorliegende Beitrag beleuchtet aus emotions- und handlungstheoretischer Sicht affektive und aktiv-gestalterische ... [more ▼]

Familienangehörige sind die wichtigsten informellen Pflegepersonen alter Menschen. Der vorliegende Beitrag beleuchtet aus emotions- und handlungstheoretischer Sicht affektive und aktiv-gestalterische Prozesse in der Familienpflege, die in der traditionellen Forschung zu "caregiver burden" und "caregiver gain" bislang nur unzureichend behandelt wurden. Einleitend werden verschiedene objektive Facetten der Pflegebedürftigkeit im Alter inclusive der daraus erwachsenden Aufgaben und Leistungen pflegender Angehöriger sowie der positiven und negativen Auswirkungen auf andere Lebensbereiche der Pflegenden und Gepflegten beschrieben. Im Anschluss daran wird die subjektive Bedeutung der Pflegesituation für die pflegenden Angehörigen thematisiert. Hierbei wird zunächst das breite Spektrum positiver und negativer Emotionen pflegender Angehöriger, deren Genese aus der subjektiven Einschätzung der Pflegesituation und die mit den ausgelösten Emotionen einhergehenden Handlungsbereitschaften der pflegenden Angehörigen dargestellt. Einen weiteren Schwerpunkt bilden zentrale Entscheidungen pflegender Angehöriger für das Leben der Gepflegten und für ihr eigenes Leben (z.B. Übernahme der Pflegerolle, Veranlassung einer Heimunterbringung). Hierbei wird auf die multiplen Ziele pflegender Angehöriger (z.B. Wohlergehen der Gepflegten, eigenes Wohlergehen, Wohlergehen Dritter), mögliche Zielkonflikte und die Bedeutung von Zielen für das Handeln pflegender Angehöriger eingegangen. Möglichkeiten der konsequenten Zielverfolgung in der Pflege werden ebenso behandelt wie solche der flexiblen Zieladjustierung im Falle unerreichbar gewordener Pflegeziele. Abschließend wird resümiert , dass die Anpassung von pflegenden Angehörigen ein komplexes Geschehen darstellt: Die Familienpflege ist mit vielen Aufgaben, Leistungen und Auswirkungen auf andere Lebensbereiche verbunden, wodurch multiple Ziele der Pflegenden tangiert (erfüllt oder frustriert) werden können; solche Ziele können je nach Lage der Situation auf sehr verschiedene Weise verfolgt oder auch an das Realisierbare angepasst werden. [less ▲]

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See detailFamily caregiving for older people from a life-span developmental point of view
Boll, Thomas UL; Ferring, Dieter UL

in Abstract book: 16th European Conference on Developmental Psychology (2013, September 05)

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See detailFamily caregiving for older people from a life-span developmental point of view
Boll, Thomas UL; Ferring, Dieter UL

in Albert, Isabelle; Ferring, Dieter (Eds.) Intergenerational relations: European perspectives in family and society (2013)

Family members are the most important informal carers for older people. The present paper analyses their situation with core concepts from life-span developmental psychology such as critical life events ... [more ▼]

Family members are the most important informal carers for older people. The present paper analyses their situation with core concepts from life-span developmental psychology such as critical life events, developmental tasks, development-related goals, emotions, and actions. From that perspective two mayor branches of past caregiver research (on caregiver burden and on caregiver gain) are reviewed and criticized as underestimating the active role of family carers as authors of important decisions for their own and the care-recipients’ life and as neglecting the carers’ differentiated emotions. Following this, hypotheses are generated about how the multi-facetted caregiving situation partly frustrates and partly fulfills family carers’ goals concerning their own development and that of the care recipient and how this gives rise to family carers’ emotions, action tendencies, and actions. Moreover, family carers’ goals, goal conflicts, and major action possibilities are considered as well as carers’s goal adjustments and development of competencies and personality attributes in response to caregiving. It is concluded that concepts from life-span developmental psychology enable a more comprehensive analysis of family caregiving and promise future progress in research, especially if they also take into account the socio-cultural constraints and options of family carers’ actions and development. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Situation pflegender Angehöriger alter Menschen aus Sicht der Entwicklungspsychologie der Lebensspanne
Boll, Thomas UL; Ferring, Dieter UL

in Zeitschrift für Gerontologie und Geriatrie : Organ der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Gerontologie und Geriatrie; Supplement 1 (2012, September)

Familienangehörige sind die wichtigsten informellen Pflegepersonen alter Menschen. Bisherige Forschung hat v.a. aus stress-theoretischer Sicht die Belastungen und deren negative Folgen für die Gesundheit ... [more ▼]

Familienangehörige sind die wichtigsten informellen Pflegepersonen alter Menschen. Bisherige Forschung hat v.a. aus stress-theoretischer Sicht die Belastungen und deren negative Folgen für die Gesundheit der Pflegenden thematisiert. Stress-theoretische Ansätze können aber die inzwischen gut dokumentierten positiven Erfahrungen und Entwicklungsgewinne pflegender Angehöriger nur unzureichend erklären. Der vorliegende Beitrag untersucht die weitergehenden heuristischen Vorzüge einer entwicklungspsychologischen Sicht. Methoden: Literaturrecherchen. Analyse der Situation pflegender Angehöriger mit Kernkonzepten der Lebensspannen-Entwicklungspsychologie (z.B. kritische Lebensereignisse, Entwicklungsziele, intentionale Selbstentwicklung). Ergebnisse: Eine entwicklungspsychologische Sicht erschließt (1) negative, positive und als ambivalent erlebte Aspekte des Pflegens, auch als Funktion von Alter und Phase im Lebenslauf, (2) wie die facettenreiche Pflegesituation diverse Wünsche und Ziele pflegender Angehöriger bzgl. eigener Entwicklung und der der Gepflegten teils frustriert, teils erfüllt, und wie daraus Emotionen und Handlungsbereitschaften erwachsen, (3) wie sich Wünsche, Ziele, Kompetenzen und Persönlichkeitsmerkmale pflegender Angehöriger durch Pflegeerfahrungen weiterentwickeln. Schlussfolgerungen: Kernkonzepte der Entwicklungspsychologie der Lebensspanne erlauben eine umfassendere Analyse der Situation pflegender Angehöriger als bisher und versprechen weitere Fortschritte. [less ▲]

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