References of "Bartolini, Cesare 50000604"
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See detailDevelopment of a test track for driverless cars: vehicle design, track configuration, and liability considerations
Szalay, Zsolt; Tettamanti, Tamás; Esztergár-Kiss, Domokos et al

in Periodica Polytechnica Transportation Engineering (2018), 46(1), 29-35

The Research Center for Autonomous Road Vehicles (RECAR) was founded in 2015 upon the initiative of the Faculty of Transportation Engineering and Vehicle Engineering of Budapest University of Technology ... [more ▼]

The Research Center for Autonomous Road Vehicles (RECAR) was founded in 2015 upon the initiative of the Faculty of Transportation Engineering and Vehicle Engineering of Budapest University of Technology and Economics. The research center is supported by industrial partners and other academic partners targeting research and educational purposes. In complement to this project, the construction of a new automotive test track is also under development especially for autonomous road vehicle testing serving as automotive proving ground in Zalaegerszeg, Hungary. Accordingly, an intensive research has been started in RECAR center in the field of autonomous vehicle technology. The paper’s goal is to share the main practical and methodological experiences with the scientific audience as well as the industrial sector. Based on the initial research actions we intend to enlighten the upcoming research challenges of driverless vehicles and automated intelligent transport system. Basically, three main topics are concerned. Firstly, the main issues concerning autonomous vehicle research are summarized. Secondly, the requirements for autonomous test track design are concluded. Thirdly, the legal questions that emerge with the appearance of driverless vehicles are investigated, especially concerning liability. [less ▲]

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See detailProperty and the Cloud
Bartolini, Cesare UL; Santos, Cristiana; Ullrich, Carsten UL

in Computer Law & Security Report (2018)

Data is a modern form of wealth in the digital world, and massive amounts of data circulate in cloud environments. While this enormously facilitates the sharing of information, both for personal and ... [more ▼]

Data is a modern form of wealth in the digital world, and massive amounts of data circulate in cloud environments. While this enormously facilitates the sharing of information, both for personal and professional purposes, it also introduces some critical problems concerning the ownership of the information. Data is an intangible good that is stored in large data warehouses, where the hardware architectures and software programs running the cloud services coexist with the data of many users. This context calls for a twofold protection: on one side, the cloud is made up of hardware and software that constitute the business assets of the service provider (property of the cloud); on the other side, there is a definite need to ensure that users retain control over their data (property in the cloud). The law grants protection to both sides under several perspectives, but the result is a complex mix of interwoven regimes, further complicated by the intrinsically international nature of cloud computing that clashes with the typical diversity of national laws. As the business model based on cloud computing grows, public bodies, and in particular the European Union, are striving to find solutions to properly regulate the future economy, either by introducing new laws, or by finding the best ways to apply existing principles. [less ▲]

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See detailLaw and the software development life cycle
Bartolini, Cesare UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL

Scientific Conference (2017, November 25)

The increasing demand of reliable software services and the dependability that our daily personal and professional life have on them is bringing significant changes in the domain of software service ... [more ▼]

The increasing demand of reliable software services and the dependability that our daily personal and professional life have on them is bringing significant changes in the domain of software service engineering. One of the most revolutionary is the introduction of regulations, repeating what in the past has concerned the product market. Regulations need to find a balance between the interests of several roles and reduce the inevitable tensions that would otherwise arise among them, as well as to defend the right of the weakest parties (normally the end users). There are multiple interests to balance: the interests of end users, the protection of intellectual property, a fair competition against other enterprises, just to name a few. While some of these requirements concern the structure and organization of the enterprise, some of them are fit to penetrate into the software development life cycle. This would serve multiple purposes: allow the enterprise to design services which already take the legal requirements into account; visually represent the requirements and their interaction with the functionality of the system; develop the software components using tools and methodologies that are able to deal with those requirements; define metrics to measure the degree to which such requirements are met; measure the impact of the requirements on the functionality of the service and on other parameters of the service (such as performance or storage occupation); verify and monitor whether the legal requirements are met; and, last but not least, to have an argument to be used in case of a complaint in a court or at a competent authority. Before being considered in the software service life cycle, legal requirements must undergo a preprocessing phase in which they are translated into some form which is compatible with the tools and methodologies proper of the software engineering, for instance being modelled into a formalism that makes them processable by a machine. There is a significant amount of interdisciplinary topics that need to be combined together to reach an integration between regulation and software life cycle. In particular, at least from three complementary perspectives are needed. One perspective requires the analysis of the provisions of the law, the extraction of the legal requirements classified according to the stakeholders affected, and the translation of those requirements into some formal model that can be processed using appropriate software tools. A second perspective requires a study of the legal requirements from the point of view of requirements engineering techniques, also defining metrics to measure them. The third concerns the models used in the various stages of software engineering (design, modeling, development, validation and testing), which need to be extended to accommodate the legal requirements in their formal representation. Only by putting together these perspectives a comprehensive approach to deal with legal requirements in software engineering is possible. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling Metrics for Transparency in Medical Systems
Pierina Brustolin Spagnuelo, Dayana UL; Bartolini, Cesare UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL

in Proceedings of TrustBus 2017 (2017, July)

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See detailCritical features of autonomous road transport from the perspective of technological regulation and law
Bartolini, Cesare UL; Tettamanti, Tamás; István, Varga

in Transportation Research Procedia (2017), 27

Autonomous vehicular technology significantly stresses the issue of safety. Although the use of driverless cars raises considerable expectations of a general improvement in safety, new challenges ... [more ▼]

Autonomous vehicular technology significantly stresses the issue of safety. Although the use of driverless cars raises considerable expectations of a general improvement in safety, new challenges concerning the safety aspects stem from the changing context. On the one and, the paper addresses regulatory issues raised by the impact of technological changes, particularly standardization problems. On the other hand, the issue of liability questions is investigated as it might cause today’s main legal obstacle for the wide spreading of autonomous cars, especially as autonomous cars might jeopardize the existing approaches to vehicular liability. The aim of this paper is to scrutinize the basic problems in both fields. We provide what, at the current state-of-the-art, appear to be reasonable recommendations from the perspective of technological regulation and law, in order to deal with the main problems that might hamper the development of autonomous transport technology. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards legal compliance by correlating Standards and Laws with a semi-automated methodology
Bartolini, Cesare UL; Giurgiu, Andra UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL et al

in Bosse, Tibor; Bredeweg, Bert (Eds.) BNAIC 2016: Modern Trends in Artificial Intelligence (2017)

Since generally legal regulations do not provide clear parameters to determine when their requirements are met, achieving legal compliance is not trivial. The adoption of standards could help create an ... [more ▼]

Since generally legal regulations do not provide clear parameters to determine when their requirements are met, achieving legal compliance is not trivial. The adoption of standards could help create an argument of compliance in favour of the implementing party, provided there is a clear correspondence between the provisions of a specific standard and the regulation's requirements. However, identifying such correspondences is a complex process which is complicated further by the fact that the established correlations may be overridden in time e.g., because newer court decisions change the interpretation of certain legal provisions. To help solve these problems, we present a framework that supports legal experts in recognizing correlations between provisions in a standard and requirements in a given law. The framework relies on state-of-the-art Natural Language Semantics techniques to process the linguistic terms of the two documents, and maintains a knowledge base of the logic representations of the terms, together with their defeasible correlations, both formal and substantive. An application of the framework is shown by comparing a provision of the European General Data Protection Regulation with the ISO/IEC 27018:2014 standard. [less ▲]

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See detailSoftware Testing Techniques Revisited for OWL Ontologies
Bartolini, Cesare UL

in Hammoudi, Slimane; Ferreira Pires, Luís; Selic, Bran (Eds.) et al Model-Driven Engineering and Software Development (2017)

Ontologies are an essential component of semantic knowledge bases and applications, and nowadays they are used in a plethora of domains. Despite the maturity of ontology languages, support tools and ... [more ▼]

Ontologies are an essential component of semantic knowledge bases and applications, and nowadays they are used in a plethora of domains. Despite the maturity of ontology languages, support tools and engineering techniques, the testing and validation of ontologies is a field which still lacks consolidated approaches and tools. This paper attempts at partly bridging that gap, taking a first step towards the extension of some traditional software testing techniques to ontologies expressed in a widely-used format. Mutation testing and coverage testing, revisited in the light of the peculiar features of the ontology language and structure, can can assist in designing better test suites to validate them, and overall help in the engineering and refinement of ontologies and software based on them. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing Ontologies to Model Data Protection Requirements in Workflows
Bartolini, Cesare UL; Muthuri, Robert; Cristiana, Santos

in Otake, Mihoko; Kurahashi, Setsuya; Ota, Yuiko (Eds.) et al New Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence (2017)

Data protection, currently under the limelight at the European level, is undergoing a long and complex reform that is finally approaching its completion. Consequently, there is an urgent need to customize ... [more ▼]

Data protection, currently under the limelight at the European level, is undergoing a long and complex reform that is finally approaching its completion. Consequently, there is an urgent need to customize semantic standards towards the prospective legal framework. The aim of this paper is to provide a bottom-up ontology describing the constituents of data protection domain and its relationships. Our contribution envisions a methodology to highlight the (new) duties of data controllers and foster the transition of IT-based systems, services, tools and businesses to comply with the new General Data Protection Regulation. This structure may serve as the foundation for the design of data protection compliant information systems. [less ▲]

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See detailAn approach to information retrieval and question answering in the legal domain
Adebayo, Kolawole John UL; Di Caro, Luigi; Boella, Guido et al

Scientific Conference (2016, November 15)

We describe in this paper, a report of our participation at COLIEE 2016 Information Retrieval (IR) and Legal Question Answering (LQA) tasks. Our solution for the IR part employs the use of a simple but ... [more ▼]

We describe in this paper, a report of our participation at COLIEE 2016 Information Retrieval (IR) and Legal Question Answering (LQA) tasks. Our solution for the IR part employs the use of a simple but effective Machine Learning (ML) procedure. Our Question Answering solution answers "YES or 'NO' to a question, i.e., 'YES' if the question is entailed by a text and 'NO' otherwise. With recent exploit of Multi-layered Neural Network systems at language modeling tasks, we presented a Deep Learning approach which uses an adaptive variant of the Long-Short Term Memory (LSTM), i.e. the Child Sum Tree LSTM (CST-LSTM) algorithm that we modified to suit our purpose. Additionally, we benchmarked this approach by handcrafting features for two popular ML algorithms, i.e., the Support Vector Machine (SVM) and the Random Forest (RF) algorithms. Even though we used some features that have performed well from similar works, we also introduced some semantic features for performance improvement. We used the results from these two algorithms as the baseline for our CST-LSTM algorithm. All evaluation was done on the COLIEE 2015 training and test sets. The overall result conforms the competitiveness of our approach. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards legal compliance by correlating Standards and Laws with a semi-automated methodology
Bartolini, Cesare UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL; Robaldo, Livio UL

in Proceedings of the 28 Benelux Conference on Artificial Intelligence (BNAIC) (2016, November)

Since legal regulations do not generally provide clear parameters to determine when their requirements are met, achieving legal compliance is not trivial. If there were a clear correspondence between the ... [more ▼]

Since legal regulations do not generally provide clear parameters to determine when their requirements are met, achieving legal compliance is not trivial. If there were a clear correspondence between the provisions of a specific standard and the regulation’s requirements, one could implement the standard to claim a presumption of compliance. However, finding those correspondences is a complex process; additionally, correlations may be overridden in time, for instance, because newer court decisions change the interpretation of certain provisions. To help solve this problem, we present a framework that supports legal experts in recognizing correlations between provisions in a standard and requirements in a given law. The framework relies on state-of-the-art Natural Language Semantics techniques to process the linguistic terms of the two documents, and maintains a knowledge base of the logic representations of the terms, together with their defeasible correlations, both formal and substantive. An application of the framework is shown by comparing a provision of the European General Data Protection Regulation against the ISO/IEC 27018:2014 standard. [less ▲]

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See detailA Framework to Reason about the Legal Compliance of Security Standards
Bartolini, Cesare UL; Giurgiu, Andra UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL et al

in Proceedings of the Tenth International Workshop on Juris-informatics (JURISIN) (2016, November)

Achieving compliance with legal regulations is no easy task. Normally, laws state general requirements but do not provide clear parameters to determine when such requirements are met. On a different level ... [more ▼]

Achieving compliance with legal regulations is no easy task. Normally, laws state general requirements but do not provide clear parameters to determine when such requirements are met. On a different level, industrial standards and best practices define specific objectives that can be certified by means of auditing procedures from qualified bodies. Implementing a standard does not per se guarantee legal compliance, with the rare exception when the standard is also endorsed by the law itself. But standards and laws in the same domain may have overlaps and correlations, so adopting the former may provide an argument to demonstrate that adequate measures were taken to achieve legal compliance. In this paper, we introduce a framework that, using state-of-the-art Natural Language Semantics techniques, helps process legal documents and standards to build a knowledge base to store their logic representations, and the correlations between them. The knowledge base will help legal experts assess what requirements of the law are met by the standard and, consequently, recognize what requirements still need to be implemented to fill the remaining gaps. An application of the framework is exemplified by comparing a provision of the European General Data Protection Regulation against the ISO/IEC 27001:2013 standard. [less ▲]

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See detailMetrics for Transparency
Pierina Brustolin Spagnuelo, Dayana UL; Bartolini, Cesare UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL

in Proceedings of DPM 2016 and QASA 2016 (2016, September)

Transparency is a novel non-functional requirement for software systems. It is acclaimed to improve the quality of service since it gives users access to information concerning the system's processes ... [more ▼]

Transparency is a novel non-functional requirement for software systems. It is acclaimed to improve the quality of service since it gives users access to information concerning the system's processes, clarifying who is responsible if something goes wrong. Thus, it is believed to support people's right to a secure and private processing of their personal data. We define eight quality metrics for transparency and we demonstrate the usage and the effectiveness of the metrics by assessing transparency on the Microsoft HealthVault, an on-line platform for users to collect, store, and share medical records. [less ▲]

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See detailCloud Providers Viability: How to Address it from an IT and Legal Perspective?
Bartolini, Cesare UL; El Kateb, Donia UL; Le Traon, Yves UL et al

in Altmann, Jörn; Silaghi, Gheorghe Cosmin; Rana, Omer F. (Eds.) Economics of Grids, Clouds, Systems, and Services (2016)

A major part of the commercial Internet is moving towards a cloud paradigm. This phenomenon has a drastic impact on the organizational structures of enterprises and introduces new challenges that must be ... [more ▼]

A major part of the commercial Internet is moving towards a cloud paradigm. This phenomenon has a drastic impact on the organizational structures of enterprises and introduces new challenges that must be properly addressed to avoid major setbacks. One such challenge is that of cloud provider viability, that is, the reasonable certainty that the Cloud Service Provider (CSP) will not go out of business, either by filing for bankruptcy or by simply shutting down operations, thus leaving its customers stranded without an infrastructure and, depending on the type of cloud service used, even without their applications or data. This article attempts to address the issue of cloud provider viability, proposing some ways of mitigating the problem both from a technical and from a legal perspective. [less ▲]

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See detailMutating OWLs: semantic mutation testing for ontologies
Bartolini, Cesare UL

Scientific Conference (2016, February 19)

Ontologies are an essential component of semantic knowledge bases and applications, and nowadays they are used in a plethora of domains. Despite the maturity of ontology languages, support tools and ... [more ▼]

Ontologies are an essential component of semantic knowledge bases and applications, and nowadays they are used in a plethora of domains. Despite the maturity of ontology languages, support tools and engineering techniques, the testing and validation of ontologies is a field which still lacks consolidated approaches and tools. This paper attempts at partly bridging that gap, taking a first step towards the extension of mutation testing techniques to ontologies expressed in a widely-used format. Mutation testing techniques, revisited in the light of the peculiar features of the ontology language and structure, can help in the engineering and refinement of ontologies and software based on them. [less ▲]

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See detailOntology mutation testing
Bartolini, Cesare UL

Presentation (2016, February 03)

Mutation testing is a well-known testing technique which combines error injection and unit testing. Mutation testing is an approach that tests the efficiency of the test suite, but in doing so it also ... [more ▼]

Mutation testing is a well-known testing technique which combines error injection and unit testing. Mutation testing is an approach that tests the efficiency of the test suite, but in doing so it also allows to achieve a better understanding of the System Under Test (SUT). This work extends mutation testing techniques to ontologies expressed in the OWL language. Mutation operators on OWL ontologies change the semantics of the ontology, regardless of the syntax in which it is expressed. Mutation testing can assist the designer in the identification of potential flaws and in the maintenance of the ontology. [less ▲]

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See detailThe right to be forgotten in the light of the consent of the data subject
Bartolini, Cesare UL; Siry, Lawrence UL

in Computer Law & Security Report (2016), 32(2),

Recently, the Court of Justice of the European Union issued decision C-131/12, which was considered a major breakthrough in Internet data protection. The general public welcomed this decision as an ... [more ▼]

Recently, the Court of Justice of the European Union issued decision C-131/12, which was considered a major breakthrough in Internet data protection. The general public welcomed this decision as an actualization of the controversial “right to be forgotten”, which was introduced in the initial draft for a new regulation on data protection and repeatedly amended, due to objections by various Member States and major companies involved in massive processing of personal data. This paper attempts to delve into the content of that decision and examine if it indeed involves the right to be forgotten, if such a right exists at all, and to what extent it can be stated and enforced. [less ▲]

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See detailData Protection
Bartolini, Cesare UL

Presentation (2015, November 12)

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See detailUsing Ontologies to Model Data Protection Requirements in Workflows
Bartolini, Cesare UL; Muthuri, Robert UL; Cristiana, Santos

Scientific Conference (2015, November)

Data protection, currently under the limelight at the European level, is undergoing a long and complex reform that is finally approaching its completion. Consequently, there is an urgent need to customize ... [more ▼]

Data protection, currently under the limelight at the European level, is undergoing a long and complex reform that is finally approaching its completion. Consequently, there is an urgent need to customize semantic standards towards the prospective legal framework. The aim of this paper is to provide a bottom-up ontology describing the constituents of data protection domain and its relationships. Our contribution envisions a methodology to highlight the (new) duties of data controllers and foster the transition of IT-based systems, services/tools and businesses to comply with the new General Data Protection Regulation. This structure may serve as the foundation in the design of present and future information systems abiding to data protection legal requirements. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 175 (15 UL)
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See detailCloud Providers Viability: How to Address it from an IT and Legal Perspective?
Bartolini, Cesare UL; El Kateb, Donia UL; Le Traon, Yves UL et al

in Economics of Grids, Clouds, Systems, and Services (2015, September 16)

A major part of the commercial Internet is moving towards a cloud paradigm. This phenomenon has a drastic impact on the organizational structures of enterprises and introduces new challenges that must be ... [more ▼]

A major part of the commercial Internet is moving towards a cloud paradigm. This phenomenon has a drastic impact on the organizational structures of enterprises and introduces new challenges that must be properly addressed to avoid major setbacks. One such challenge is that of cloud provider viability, that is, the reasonable certainty that the Cloud Service Provider (CSP) will not go out of business, either by filing for bankruptcy or by simply shutting down operations, thus leaving its customers stranded without an infrastructure and, depending on the type of cloud service used, even without their applications or data. This article attempts to address the issue of cloud provider viability, proposing some ways of mitigating the problem both from a technical and from a legal perspective. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 144 (15 UL)