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See detailPatient-caregiver differences and dyad concordance towards psychosocial impacts of stroke
Bucki, Barbara UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Psychology & Health (2012), 27(suppl 1), 14

Are patient-caregiver dyads concordant when applying to stroke psychosocial impacts ? Methods: Two questionnaires administered two years poststroke in Luxemburg to 62 patients and their 62 natural ... [more ▼]

Are patient-caregiver dyads concordant when applying to stroke psychosocial impacts ? Methods: Two questionnaires administered two years poststroke in Luxemburg to 62 patients and their 62 natural caregivers include 15 common items assessing psychosocial impacts of stroke on both patients and caregivers. We (1) compare these impacts of stroke on patients and caregivers, and (2) use paired analysis of the concordance in responses within dyads. Findings: Patients feel ashamed, more often than caregivers imagine (11.3% vs. 3.2%*). Patients perceive less often than caregivers an upheaval in their couple (19.4% vs. 38.7%*), and preponderance of psychological difficulties (41.9% vs. 69.4%**). Loss of friends (90.7% convergent vs. 9.3% divergent*), social life (75% vs. 25%*) and family upheavals (76.8% vs. 23.2%*) are concordant subjects within dyads, contrary to feeling undervalued (62.8% vs. 37.2%; ns) and bonds’ strengthening (81.5% vs. 18.5%; ns). Discussion: Improving communication about feelings within patient-caregiver dyads may enhance their social capital as a health capability. [less ▲]

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See detailGender disparities of depressive mood and roles of family factors, school difficulty, violence, and unhealthy behaviours among adolescents
Chau, Kénora; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Social Justice and Democratization (2012)

Nowadays modern societies are to be more competitive and include more non-intact families and living difficulties due to employment and social deprivations. Adolescents may suffer from depressive mood (DM ... [more ▼]

Nowadays modern societies are to be more competitive and include more non-intact families and living difficulties due to employment and social deprivations. Adolescents may suffer from depressive mood (DM) which is common and multi-factorial. This study assessed, among boys and girls, the causal relationships between DM and parent education, nationality, occupation, income, divorce/separation, and death, repeating a school-year, lifetime alcohol/tobacco/cannabis/other drugs uses, victim of violence and sexual abuse, involvement in violence, and lack of social supports (family members/friends). Methods: 1559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France (mean age 13.5, SD 1.3) completed in class a questionnaire including DM (Kandel scale), factors studied, and their occurring/persisting period. Data were analyzed using Cox models taking into account risk factors which came before and persisted until DM occurring. Findings: Lifetime-DM affected 7.6% of boys and 19.1% of girls. Among girls factors with significant crude hazard ratios (HR) were: parent divorce/separation (1.57), insufficient income (1.95), repeating a school-year (1.95), victim of violence (2.99) or sexual abuse (4.96), and lack of supports (4.08 for score 1-2 and 7.74 for score 3+, vs. score 0) while tobacco use was close to significance (1.77). Taking all factors into account retained only repeating a school-year (adjusted HR 1.87), victim of violence (2.50) or sexual abuse (4.02), and lack of supports (3.83 and 7.28). Among boys, the significant factors were: hard-drug use (6.01), victim of violence (2.88), and lack of supports (2.27 and 4.78) while insufficient income (1.75), low parent education (1.60), and victim of sexual abuse (3.58) were close to significance. Full model retained only victim of violence (adjusted HR 2.29) and lack of supports (2.16 and 4.18). Conclusion: Taking chronology in consideration revealed strong gender disparities for DM and its associations with family characteristics, school difficulties, unhealthy behaviours, violence, and social supports that may be prevention targets. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevalence of Problem Drug Use and Injecting Drug Use in Luxembourg: A Longitudinal and Methodological Perspective.
Origer, Alain UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in European Addiction Research (2012), 18

To estimate the prevalence of problem drug use (PDU) and injecting drug use (IDU) in Luxembourg and analyze trends between 1997 and 2009. To assess the feasibility of prevalence estimations based on drug ... [more ▼]

To estimate the prevalence of problem drug use (PDU) and injecting drug use (IDU) in Luxembourg and analyze trends between 1997 and 2009. To assess the feasibility of prevalence estimations based on drug use surveillance systems. Methods: Serial multi-method PDU/IDU prevalence estimations based upon capture-recapture, Poisson regression, multiplier and back-calculation methods. Comparative analysis of methods and assessment of their robustness to variations of external factors. Results: National PDU and IDU prevalence rates were estimated at 6.16/1,000 (95% CI 4.62/1,000 to 7.81/1,000) and 5.68/1,000 (95% CI 4.53/1,000 to 6.85/1,000) inhabitants aged 15–64 years, respectively. Absolute prevalence and prevalence rates of PDU increased between 1997 and 2000 and declined from 2003 onwards, whereas IDU absolute prevalence and prevalence rates witnessed an increasing trend between 1997 and 2007. Conclusions: Drug use surveillance systems can be valuable instruments for the estimation and trend analysis of drug misuse prevalence given multiple methods are applied that rely on serial and representative data from different sources and different settings, control multiple counts and build upon standardized and sustained data collection routines. The described institutional contact indicator revealed to be a useful tool in the context of PDU/IDU prevalence estimations and thus contributes to enhancing evidence-based drug policy planning. [less ▲]

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See detailLife satisfaction of two-year post-stroke survivors: effects of socioeconomic factors, motor impairment, Newcastle Stroke-specific Quality of Life leasure and World health Organization quality of Life-bref of informal caregivers in Luxembourg and a rural area in Portugal.
Baumann, Michèle UL; Lurbe-Puerto, Katia UL; Leandro, M. E. et al

in Cerebrovascular Diseases (2012), 33

Background: Life satisfaction of stroke survivors is known to be associated with socio-economic factors and the survivor’s and his/her caregiver’s quality of life, but their respective influence remains ... [more ▼]

Background: Life satisfaction of stroke survivors is known to be associated with socio-economic factors and the survivor’s and his/her caregiver’s quality of life, but their respective influence remains to be fully elucidated. Purpose: To analyse the stroke survivors’ life satisfaction 2 years after the event and its relationships with quality of life, socio-economic and stroke-related characteristics, and with informal caregivers’ life satisfaction and quality of life . Methods: Over 18 months, all stroke patients from Luxembourg and northeastern Portugal who lived at home were identified from the Inspection Générale de la Sécurité Sociale and hospital records, respectively. The clinical diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease was confirmed. We excluded all patients who declared that stroke did not result in neurological impairmentsat the time of stroke from the statistical analysis. The samples comprised 79 patients in Luxembourg and 48 in Portugal. Patients and the people they identified as their main caregivers were interviewed using validated questionnaires measuring life satisfaction, i.e. the Newcastle Stroke-Specific Quality of Life (Newsqol – 11 subscales), which identifies the areas affected by stroke among patients, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life – bref (Whoqol-bref – 4 subscales) of informal caregivers. Survivors without neurological impairment at the time of stroke were excluded. Data were analysed via multiple-regression models. Results: Life satisfaction was higher among women and lower among subjects with impaired motor functions. It was lower among Portuguese respondents with low-level education ( <12th grade) and higher among those at work (37.6/100). In Luxembourg, retired people had more life satisfaction than did working people (–7.9/100). Controlling for socio-economic factors, life satisfaction was associated with feelings- Newsqol (slope 0.25) among Luxembourg residents, and with feelings-, mobility- and self-care-Newsqol (slopes 0.24, 0.27 and 0.33, respectively) among Portuguese respondents. Life satisfaction of patients was strongly related to that offamily caregivers among the Portuguese respondents (slope 0.66) but the relationship was moderate in Luxembourg (slope 0.28). The survivors’ life satisfaction was not correlated with any Whoqol-bref domain in the Luxembourg group, but was correlated with the Whoqol-bref psychological, social relationships and environment domains among the Portuguese respondents (slopes 0.55, 0.59 and 0.51, respectively). Conclusions: The life satisfaction scale and the Newsqol stroke instrument, which identify areas of quality of life affected by stroke, are reliable patient-centred markers of intervention outcome. They can be used within the framework of medical follow-up (such as telephone assistance, clinical practice and prevention). Depending on the stroke survivor’s and the family caregiver’s habitual lifestyle and material circumstances, enhancement of a caregiver’s quality of life can help maintain the patient’s life satisfaction, particularly in a rural setting. [less ▲]

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See detailWhich Caregiving esteem for which Gender ?
Bucki, Barbara UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Psychology & Health (2012), 27(suppl 1), 170-171

Background: Two years after stroke, are the factors of the esteem of caregiving the same by gender? Methods: Face-to-face questionnaires administered to 92 Luxembourgish and Portuguese stroke patients and ... [more ▼]

Background: Two years after stroke, are the factors of the esteem of caregiving the same by gender? Methods: Face-to-face questionnaires administered to 92 Luxembourgish and Portuguese stroke patients and their 67 men and 25 women caregivers. For each sex, a multiple regression entering:- Neurological impairments,- Patients’ and caregivers’ life satisfaction [1;10],- Reactions towards caregiving: esteem (dependent variable), lack of family support, impacts on finances, schedule and health (Caregiver Reaction Assessment subscales),- Confidence in information subscale from the Carer Satisfaction Community Services. Results: Caregivers with a high caregiving esteem are, in women: those who trust information from community services ( ¼0.412***) and care for patients keeping few sensory impairments ( ¼0.300**; R2adj.¼0.257); in men : those who are low impacted on their health ( ¼0.471*) and care for patients satisfied with life ( ¼0.371; R2adj.¼0.447). Discussion: Home-based rehabilitation can be sustained by developing men and women caregivers’ specific health capabilities. [less ▲]

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See detailVivre à domicile, deux ans après un AVC : Etude auprès des patients et des aidants du Luxembourg.
Baumann, Michèle UL

Presentation (2012)

Au Luxembourg, une recherche pluridisciplinaire a été réalisée auprès de 797 personnes victimes d’un accident vasculaire cérébral (AVC). Une enquête nationale a été menée comportant un volet ... [more ▼]

Au Luxembourg, une recherche pluridisciplinaire a été réalisée auprès de 797 personnes victimes d’un accident vasculaire cérébral (AVC). Une enquête nationale a été menée comportant un volet épidémiologique effectué par le CRP-Santé, qui a rassemblé des données médico-administratives et des données cliniques issues des dossiers d’hospitalisation, et un volet de sociologie médicale par l’Université qui a interrogé 94 patients vivant au domicile, deux après la survenue de l’AVC, et leurs 62 aidants informels principaux. Des recommandations majeures de santé publique et de politiques sociales peuvent être formulées sur la nécessité de mettre en place : 1) un système de surveillance des AVC, indispensable pour orienter les politiques de santé en termes de promotion, prévention et intervention; 2) une filière de soins AVC plus visible, mieux structurée et coordonnée; 3) un suivi social et éducatif par un « gestionnaire des familles AVC » (patients, mais aussi et surtout aidants) et des aides financières pour développer un véritable soutien à domicile à moyen et long terme; 4) une prévention primaire en faveur des aidants que les souffrances physiques, psychiques et la faible qualité de vie sociale amènent à devenir une « population à risque » du système de santé, situation qui touche directement, ou sera susceptible de concerner dans un avenir proche, la plus grande partie d'entre nous. [less ▲]

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See detailReviews about university from freshmen in social sciences: what to remember for European policies!
Amara, Marie-Emmanuelle UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Higher Education in the 21st Century: Conceptualization and Performance (2012)

In Europe, traditional missions of university are to produce and transmit knowledge; higher education is free of any professional purpose. But in the early 21st century, the Lisbon and the Bologna process ... [more ▼]

In Europe, traditional missions of university are to produce and transmit knowledge; higher education is free of any professional purpose. But in the early 21st century, the Lisbon and the Bologna process set new goals to ensure on the one hand the competitiveness of European higher education on the global market and on the other hand the sustainable employability of graduates. The freshmen students must adapt to university environment, adopt new patterns, learn how to study at uni, etc. In the same time academic leaders focus on the need to quickly become employable, ie to be mobile, flexible, able to practice foreign languages, etc. This study which focuses on feelings of first year students in social sciences from 4 European universities was conducted in two steps: - The first objective was to explore their perceptions on university life and their approach of employability. Ten focus groups were held in France (5 groups, 39 participants) and in Luxembourg (5 groups, 51 participants). It appears that they consider their social student identity as a major determinant of their well-being at university. They are concerned about the reform of curricula in their respective countries and have difficulty making connections between training and the job market. - The second objective was to assess through an online questionnaire the scores of StUdent Social Identity (SUSI - 12 items) of Belgians (102), Luxembourgers (103) and Romanians (77), and their scores of Employability Skills acquired at University (ESU - 6 items). Our study revealed a highly significant correlation between SUSI and ESU (Spearmans rho = 0.377, p = 0.000). The mean scores (out of 100) are significantly different according to universities. If Luxembourgers get the best score SUSI (67.64 vs. Romanians 40.79, vs. Belgians 63.34), the score ESU is higher in Romania (74.94 vs. Luxembourg 71.26 vs. Belgians 63.03). These differences suggest that European universities can't develop upon a single model. The university policies must address the national context (historical and socioeconomic) and not overlook identity construction of students. As citizens and future leaders of our countries, they have to be heard and their points of view must be incorporated into thinking about missions of universities. [less ▲]

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See detailExperiences of caregiving, satisfaction of life and social repercussions among family caregivers, two years post-stroke.
Lurbe-Puerto, Katia UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Social Work in Health Care (2012), 51

Cerebrovascular diseases are a public health and social policy priority in Europe due to their high prevalence and the long-term disability they may result in (as the principal cause of handicap ... [more ▼]

Cerebrovascular diseases are a public health and social policy priority in Europe due to their high prevalence and the long-term disability they may result in (as the principal cause of handicap). Increasingly, family caregivers take over the care at home of these patients. Two years post-stroke, our study analyzed the feelings of family caregivers from Luxembourg and northeastern Portugal toward their experience of caregiving and its repercussions on social and couple relationships, life satisfaction, and socioeconomic characteristics. Participating hospitals identified survivors and consent was sought by letter. Patients (n = 62) and their main caregivers (n = 46 pairs) were interviewed at home. The mean life satisfaction of caregivers was similar, but the experience of providing care differed in terms of family support, and disruptions of the caregivers’ family responsibilities. More Portuguese respondents gave activities up, found little time for relaxation, and estimated that their health had deteriorated; more Luxembourgers felt strong enough to cope. More Portuguese spouses reported an impact on their sex lives. Family caregivers represent a “population at risk.” Social workers can help them by providing domestic assistance, undertaking coaching activities, fostering favorable attitudes, and offering reassurance. Home-based rehabilitation in Europe involving family care must take account of cultural lifestyle issues. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreased residual disability among post-stroke survivors, and differences in the repercussions between informal caregivers.
Baumann, Michèle UL; Lurbe-Puerto, Katia UL

in Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation (2011), 18(2), 162-171

Purpose: To analyze the associations between increased residual disability among poststroke survivors and the repercussions for their informal caregivers’ lives, taking into account the latter’s gender ... [more ▼]

Purpose: To analyze the associations between increased residual disability among poststroke survivors and the repercussions for their informal caregivers’ lives, taking into account the latter’s gender and education level. Methods: 215 stroke survivors (64.5 years; 55.8% men) were recruited by one neurologist from each of the 22 French regions. Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living (Katz ADL) was mean 9.3, and 54% still had impairments in “more than two of the six neurological domains” of the American Heart Association Stroke Outcome Classifi cation (AHA.SOC): motor,sensory, vision, affect, cognition, and language. The 215 caregivers (57.8 years; 72.1% women) completed a face-to-face questionnaire concerning their social (8 items), material (4 items), and emotional (8 items) repercussions. Results: Katz ADL and AHA.SOC were significantly related to social repercussions for caregivers. Lack of autonomy among stroke survivors (low Katz ADL) was associated with the material diffi culties of most concern to caregivers: “I needed to move house” (odds ratio [OR] 1.16; 95% CI, 1.07-1.27) and “I cannot go out anymore” (OR 1.29; 95% CI, 1.16-1.44). Being a male caregiver was strongly associated with a feeling of injustice (OR 2.53; 95% CI, 1.07-6.00). A low educational level was linked to an increased feeling of fear (OR 2.61; 95% CI, 1.05-6.51) and a greater feeling of isolation (OR 6.49; 95% CI, 1.20-35.02). Conclusion: Increased dependency post stroke leads to impoverishment in the caregiver’s social relationships. Evaluating the emotional repercussions, particularly for men, is an important aspect of enabling survivors to continue to live at home.Innovative accompaniment and counseling services should be considered.repercussions for their informal caregivers’ lives, taking account of the latter’s gender and education level. [less ▲]

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See detailDay-to-day home caring for a stroke survivor, two-year post-stroke perceived psychosocial impacts for woman caregivers in Luxembourg
Bucki, Barbara UL; Lurbe-Puerto, Katia UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Women’s Mental Health (2011)

In the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (GDL) informal caregivers are increasingly requested to provide daily home care to stroke survivors to avoid institutionalization (Kjellstrom et al. 20071). As this major ... [more ▼]

In the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (GDL) informal caregivers are increasingly requested to provide daily home care to stroke survivors to avoid institutionalization (Kjellstrom et al. 20071). As this major life event brings upheavals to caregiver-survivor pairs, we aimed to identify and analyse the perceived psychosocial impacts for female caregivers. Method. Over 12 months, with the help of the Social Security, two-years post-stroke survivors were contacted, and 41 women (59,1 years) and 21 men (59,6 years) informal caregivers consented to participate in this cross national survey. Research assistants interviewed them at home, using face-to-face questionnaires, containing: 1) Life Satisfaction (LS) measure in accordance to the European Quality of Life Study (EQLS)2 (scale 0 - 10) ; 2) Caregiver Reaction Assessment 24 assertions (CRA) (Given et al., 19923); 3) 7 questions about the evolution of caregivers’ tasks and responsibilities in the household since the stroke onset. Means and percentages and, a comparison between sexes were estimated using t tests and chi². Results. The LS mean is lower in woman caregivers (6.84 vs. 8.00 male caregivers t = - 2.52). Women appear to be more affected in terms of physical health (33.0 ±22.1 vs. 19.1±20.1 t = 2.06), disrupted schedule (46.7 ±29.7 vs. 26.2 ±18.8 t = 2.54) and lack of family support (39.9 ±24.7 vs. 25.0 ±15.6 t = 2.18). More women responded to feel « tired all the time » (50.0% vs. 12.5% p=0.013) and found « difficult to find time for relaxation » (35.7% vs. 6.3% p=0.030). They admitted “others have dumped caring for their partner onto them” (35.7% vs. 11.8% p=0.078) and had difficulty “to get help from their family” (17.9% vs. 0.0% p = 0.073). Women considered to be more “in charge of the relationships with professionals” (52.0% vs. 6.3% p=0.003) and to “have more household responsibilities” than before the event (37.5% vs 5.9% p=0.020). Less women declared to « enjoy caring for their partner » (67.9% vs. 93.8% p= 0.049). Conclusions. Informal woman caregivers’ LS average (6.84) were one point lower than the indicator in 2007 for the GDL general population (7.85) who participated at the EQLS, near to the EU-27’ one (7.0). Our study showed their psychosocial repercussions them to require gender-based adaptation strategies to perform their caregiving role. Interventions reinforcing women’s health capability could improve their LS. Follow-up qualitative research would help to identify and understand women’s specific needs regarding these capabilities to develop. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferences between Luxembourg and Portugal in the Life Satisfaction of Stroke Survivors, two years post-event: The influence of an unequal quality of life.
Baumann, Michèle UL; Lurbe-Puerto, Katia UL; Leandro, ME.

in Health inequalities across Europe (2011)

Two years post-event, we described the survivors’ life satisfaction (LS) and Quality of Life (QoL), the LS and QoL of their caregivers, and their socio-demographic and health characteristics. We analysed ... [more ▼]

Two years post-event, we described the survivors’ life satisfaction (LS) and Quality of Life (QoL), the LS and QoL of their caregivers, and their socio-demographic and health characteristics. We analysed the survivors’ LS and its associations with the above-mentioned determinants from a national (mainly urban society) survey in Luxembourg (LU) and a Bragança district (mainly rural) survey in the Northeast of Portugal (PT). Methods. Over 18 months, survivors (≥18 years) of a stroke, living at home and having given their informed consent were contacted. The Inspection Générale de la Sécurité Sociale of LU and the District Health Centre in PT had previously confirmed all diagnoses and listed the potential participants. Survivors identified their caregivers and both were interviewed, at home, using questionnaires measuring LS (scale 1-10) and two internationally validated QoL’ scales: the survivors’ Newcastle Quality of Life (Newsqol) and the Whoqol-Bref for the caregivers. Results. The participation rate was 26.5% LU and 38% PT: 94 LU (65.5 years) and 50 PT (70.1 years) survivors; 62 LU (59.3 years) and 46 PT (60.7 years) caregivers. The LU survivors and their caregivers had higher QoL scores than the PT samples. In contrast, the PT survivors were more affected by stroke-related impacts, with significant differences in Newsqol ‘mobility’ (i.e. walking, managing stairs, bending down, standing), ‘self-care’ (i.e. preparing food, shopping, using transport, getting washed, getting dressed, and showed), feelings regarding the current situation (i.e. less independence, feelings about oneself, life changes acceptance, depressive mood, feelings of useless, loss of control over their life), and their emotional status (i.e. more emotional, sometimes crying, short-tempered, less tolerant and nervous). Only the PT survivors’ LS was linked to the ‘current neurological impairment’ domains. The LU survivors’ LS was associated with all Newsqol dimensions; stronger links (p<0.001) were found in ‘feelings’ and ‘sleep’, but no relation existed with the caregivers’ Whoqol-bref domains. Difference estimates were obtained between the survivors’ LS and the Newsqol ‘self-care’ dimension (regression coefficient (rc) -0.28 for PT), their caregivers’ LS (rc -0.63 for PT) and Whoqol-bref psychological (rc -0.67 for PT), environmental (rc -0.73 for PT), and social relationship (rc -0.91 for PT) domains. Discussion. Two years post-event, the survivors' multi-dimensional QoL was a more relevant predictor of their LS, than that of their caregivers. LU-PT differences recalled the hypothesis of the cumulative effect throughout life of social inequalities in health and highlighted the distinct impact in survivors’ LS of living in an urban society, turned towards community supports or in a rural society based on a domestic care. In home-based care settings, the survivors’ LS and Newsqol are useful patient-centred markers for individual and community interventions. [less ▲]

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See detailSQALES, Student’s QuAlity of Life and Employability Skills : l’évaluation-conseil au service de l’Université
Amara, Marie-Emmanuelle UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Evaluation et enseignement supérieur (2011)

Sous l’impulsion du processus de Bologne, les établissements de l’Espace Européen de l’Enseignement Supérieur mettent en place des systèmes Qualité. Des référentiels d’évaluation communs et des guides ... [more ▼]

Sous l’impulsion du processus de Bologne, les établissements de l’Espace Européen de l’Enseignement Supérieur mettent en place des systèmes Qualité. Des référentiels d’évaluation communs et des guides visent, au nom du processus d’harmonisation, à diffuser les « bonnes pratiques » dans tous les pays participants. Les universités sont sommées d’être productives et d’adopter une gestion rationnelle de l’ensemble de leurs ressources. Ainsi les programmes sont généralement évalués a posteriori à l’aide d’indicateurs de performance comme les taux de réussite aux examens ou d’insertion professionnelle des diplômés, et la pratique généralisée du benchmarking tend à favoriser l’utilisation de ces statistiques descriptives pour effectuer des comparaisons puis des classements nationaux et internationaux (Shanghai, Times Higher Education). Cependant certains enseignants et chercheurs souhaitent, dans une perspective holistique, considérer également le bien-être et le développement personnel des étudiants. Le dispositif SQALES, testé auprès d’un échantillon de 282 étudiants belges, luxembourgeois et roumains, propose une approche de l’évaluation novatrice reposant sur la perception qu’ont les étudiants de leurs compétences relatives à l’employabilité (échelle CRE), de leur santé psychologique (GHQ12) et de leur sentiment d’appartenance à la vie étudiante (échelle d’Identité Sociale d’Étudiant, ISE). Cette évaluation-conseil s’appuie sur une démarche compréhensive qui tient compte du contexte local et implique les bénéficiaires en tant que partenaires du processus décisionnel. Réalisée en cours de cursus, elle permet de prendre en compte en « temps réel » les difficultés rencontrées par les apprenants et d’adapter les curricula à leurs besoins, lesquels évoluent au fil de la formation, en fonction de leur construction identitaire. L’évaluateur n’agit pas en juge, mais encourage la réflexivité des acteurs et des institutions. La recherche d’un consensus concernant les ajustements à réaliser permet de réduire l’écart entre les besoins ressentis et les dispositions prises, décisions dont elle permet d’obtenir une meilleure tolérance et une mise en œuvre facilitée. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation-conseil, demarche comprehensive, indicateurs de perception
Amara, Marie-Emmanuelle UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Evaluation et enseignement supérieur (2011)

Sous l’impulsion du processus de Bologne, les établissements de l'Espace Européen de l'Enseignement Supérieur mettent en place des systèmes Qualité. Des référentiels d'évaluation communs et des guides ... [more ▼]

Sous l’impulsion du processus de Bologne, les établissements de l'Espace Européen de l'Enseignement Supérieur mettent en place des systèmes Qualité. Des référentiels d'évaluation communs et des guides visent, au nom du processus d'harmonisation, à diffuser les "bonnes pratiques" dans tous les pays participants. Les universités sont sommées d'être productives et d'adopter une gestion rationnelle de l'ensemble de leurs ressources. Ainsi, les programmes sont généralement évalués a posteriori à l'aide d'indicateurs de performance comme les taux de réussite aux examens ou d'insertion professionnelle des diplômés, et la pratique généralisée du benchmarking tend à favoriser l'utilisation de ces statistiques descriptives pour effectuer des comparaisons puis des classements nationaux et internationaux (Shanghai, Times Higher Education). Cependant, certains enseignants et chercheurs souhaitent, dans une perspective holistique, considérer également le bien-être et le développement personnel des étudiants. Le dispositif SQALES, testé auprès d'un échantillon de 282 étudiants belges, luxembourgeois et roumains, propose une approche de l'évaluation novatrice reposant sur de la perception qu'ont les étudiants de leurs compétences relatives à l'employabilité (échelle CRE), de leur santé psychologique (GHQ12) et de leur sentiment d'appartenance à la vie étudiante (échelle d'Identité Sociale d'Etudiant, ISE). Cette évaluation-conseil s'appuie sur une démarche compréhensive qui tient compte du contexte local et implique les bénéficiaires en tant que partenaires du processus décisionnel. Réalisée en cours de cursus, elle permet de prendre en compte "en temps réel" les difficultés rencontrées par les apprenants et d'adapter les curricula à leurs besoins, lesquels évoluent au fil de la formation, en fonction de leur construction identitaire. L'évaluateur n'agit pas en juge, mais encourage la réflexivité des acteurs et des institutions. La recherche d'un consensus concernant les ajustements à réaliser permet de réduire l'écart entre les besoins ressentis et les dispositions prises, décisions dont elle permet d'obtenir une meilleure tolérance et une mise en œuvre facilitée. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the collaborative work between psychiatry and social work in developing transcultural capability in mental health care.
Lurbe-Puerto, Katia UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Effets psychosociaux de la mondialisation sur la santé mentale. (2011)

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See detailThe place oof health and the micro-prowers of health professionals in rtenetion centers for unauthorised migrants multi-situated ethnographic research (France-Spain).
Lurbe-Puerto, Katia UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Social Relations in Turbulent Times (2011)

This research aimed to identify the place of health in Immigrants Retention Centres (IRC) and analyse the role of the health professionals regarding border control and immigration policies. The current ... [more ▼]

This research aimed to identify the place of health in Immigrants Retention Centres (IRC) and analyse the role of the health professionals regarding border control and immigration policies. The current structures to confine unauthorised migrants seem to address a two-fold issue: the repressive approach to controlling immigration and the increasing set-up of facilities participating in a mode of government centred on national security concern. Method. Ethnographical study was conducted in the Medical Units of a French (capacity: 35 pers.) and a Spanish (150 pers.) ICR for respectively, 9-months with a regularity of 30 half-days of presence every fortnight and 21 continuous days over a 3-weeks period. Qualitative data from observational notes and conversional interviews were triangulated and analysed under the Critical Categorical Content Discourse method, with Atlas.ti support. Findings. Illnesses that could halt deportation were infectious diseases involving treatment requiring a specialized infrastructure (tuberculosis); in France, those whose representation is bound to feelings of fear and disgust (mange) and mental illness that poses a threat to the individual and other persons; in Spain, pregnancy is a reason to allow a release from IRC. Squats are raid when expulsion quotas need to be filled; it accounted for the increased number of substance dependent persons in ICR at that time. Health professionals in IRC confront moral dilemmas. In France, they have a recognised micro-power able to overturn a deportation order: the medical certificate. Discussion. In ensuring healthcare access, they are drawn into the vigilance and control logics of the IRC security regime, despite themselves. Standardization of the medical practices is their main fall back and provides for risks management, which relies on the architecture and the neatness of the space, individual strategies of exception and social relationship that are shaped by a moral economy. The retreat into medical grounds allows keeping things “professional”and helps balance the tension resulting from providing medical care in a space that automatically appears to translate any act into one carried out in compliance with the repressive policy against undesired migration. Institutionalisation of European IRC medical units network is recommended to confront inequalities in care (access and quality). [less ▲]

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See detailThe configurations of a therapeutic failure with children of marginalised Roma families: for transcultural approach.
Lurbe-Puerto, Katia UL; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Psychology & Health (2011), 26(suppl 2), 165

Background: Alin (born in 1993, Timisoara, Rumania) is the elder son of a Roma family settled for ten years in France, having heavy psychomotor and cognitive deficiencies. Method: Case study of Alin’s ... [more ▼]

Background: Alin (born in 1993, Timisoara, Rumania) is the elder son of a Roma family settled for ten years in France, having heavy psychomotor and cognitive deficiencies. Method: Case study of Alin’s psychotherapeutic trajectory. Findings. Socio-cultural representations of mental handicaps, intrafamilial relationships and personal history are interactive determinants of psychological accompaniment and healthcare provision. Mental healthcare team in charge of Alin misconceived in the relations of care: the central role played by the particular status family network attributes to the person with mental handicap and the articulation between diversity, difference and inequality in the family’s experience of mental handicap and its care. Discussion: In socio-culturally diverse contexts, the quality of relations of care depends on professionals’ capability to develop socio-culturally sensitive and responsive to beneficiaries’ needs psychotherapeutics. Transcultural approach is not effective unless it is integrated to conventional psychological practice, and a collaborative work is settled with the concerned professionals of social work and associative sectors. [less ▲]

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See detailDeterminants of caregiving-related esteem among informal caregivers in Luxembourg, two years after their care-recipients’ stroke.
Bucki, Barbara UL; Spitz, Elisabeth; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Psychology & Health (2011), 26(suppl 2), 86

Mental health promotion policies are concerned by informal caregivers’ (ICs) suffering. What are the determinants of ICs’ caregiving-related esteem? Methods: (a) Crosssectional study. (b)62 Luxemburgish ... [more ▼]

Mental health promotion policies are concerned by informal caregivers’ (ICs) suffering. What are the determinants of ICs’ caregiving-related esteem? Methods: (a) Crosssectional study. (b)62 Luxemburgish ICs of stroke-survivors 2-year-post-event. (c)Variables: oCaregiver Reaction Assessment’s (CRA) five dimensions: caregiving-related esteem (dependent variable), impact of caregiving on health, impact on finances, impact on schedule, lack of family support, oCaregiver Satisfaction with Community Services scale, oLeisure/ couple changes/social repercussions scores. (d) Regressions adjusted on ICs’ sex and age. (e)Multiple regression including significant factors. Findings: (a) Caregiving-related esteem is determined by social repercussions (p¼0.002**), changes in couples (p¼0.004**), impact on health (p¼0.004**) and three CSCS’ dimensions: confidence (p¼0.012*), problem management (p¼0.034*) and information about stroke (p¼0.040*). (b) ICs with high caregiving related esteem (R2 adjusted¼0.275) are weakly impacted on their own health ( ¼ 0.39; p¼0.011*) and on their couple life ( ¼ 0.36; p¼0.026*). Discussion: Support programs centred on ICs’ caregiving-related esteem can reinforce ICs’ health capability. [less ▲]

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See detailAn assessment of the geographical approach to health inequality
Aiach, Pierre; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Critical Public Health (2011), 21(1), 63-69

New interest is being shown in the geographical approach to health inequality at both the research and the service provider level. The scientific and methodological basis of this approach does not take ... [more ▼]

New interest is being shown in the geographical approach to health inequality at both the research and the service provider level. The scientific and methodological basis of this approach does not take into consideration the social structure and the history of the locations/communities under investigation. The analysis of geographical differences must be verified and consideration given to possible variations in internal health inequalities between entities compared. Our approach to health inequalities is based on the theory that social health inequalities are essentially the final product of living conditions and lifestyle taking account of individual and collective history. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociations between occupational factors and occupational injury and the interplay of personal factors in Indian and French coal miners.
Bhattacherjee, A.; Kunar, BM.; Baumann, Michèle UL

in International Conference of Safety in Mines Research Institutes (2011)

Research studies during the last decade have shown the roles of occupational and individual factors in occupational injury but a few information is available regarding their interplay. This study aimed at ... [more ▼]

Research studies during the last decade have shown the roles of occupational and individual factors in occupational injury but a few information is available regarding their interplay. This study aimed at assessing the roles of occupational hazards and exploring their contributions to the occurrences of injuries among the Indian and French coal miners. In this study two surveys were conducted. The survey in India was a matched case-control study including 245 miners with an occupational injury during the previous two-year period and 245 controls with no injury from two underground coal mines located in the southern part of India. A standardized questionnaire was completed by trained personnel through face-to-face interviews. It included age, experience, sleep disorders, regular alcohol consumption, chronic diseases, smoking habit, number of dependents, occupation, and occupational hazards. The survey in France was a retrospective study on 516 coal miners randomly selected among those aged 32-47 years, from underground mines located in the north-eastern France. The subjects completed a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics, health-related behaviours, obesity, chronic diseases, psychotropic drug use, self-reportedpersonality traits, a 14-item biomechanical exposure scale, a 4-item physical exposure scale, and injury during the last two years. The data were analyzed using logistic model for the coal mines in France. The conditional logistic model was used for the matched case–control data from Indian mines. The annual rate of injuries (with sick leave) was 2.7% for the coal miners in India and 14.9% for the coal miners in France. Logistic model including all occupational factors showed that for the Indian coal miners, material handling had the highest OR (odds ratio) (3.30), followed by achinerelated hazards (2.64), hand tool-related hazards (2.21), environment/work conditions (2.10), and geological/strata control (2.01). Further adjustment for personal factors led to a substantial decrease in the OR for hand tool-related hazards (OR 1.24, reduction: 80%) and achine-related hazards (OR 1.19, reduction: 88%) and to a substantial increase in the OR for material handling (OR 5.15, - 80%), environment/work conditions (OR 2.63, -48%), and geological/strata control (to 2.35, -34%) for Indian mines. Among the French coal mines, the ORs were 3.01, 3.47, 7.26 for biomechanical exposure scores 1-4, 5-7, and ≥ 8, respectively (vs. score 0). For French coal miners, personal factors contributed to <6% of the biomechanical exposure-injury association. Among Indian coal miners, hand tool-related and machine-related hazards were significant for the <45 age group only and further adjustment for personal factors led to a decrease in their ORs by 91% and 35%, respectively. The OR for material handling increased by 513% for the <45 years age group and by 77% for the older age group. The OR for environment/work conditions increased by 65% for the <45 years age group and by 204% for the older age group. Among French coal miners further adjustment for personal factors increased the OR by 11% for the <40 years age group and decreased the OR by 26% for the older age group. Coal miners from India and France were exposed to numerous occupational hazards which played high roles in occupational injury. Personal factors had a modest confounding role among French coal miners. About the Indian coal miners, it may possibly be inferred that the combined role of personal factors increased the risk of injury for some occupational hazards such as hand tool-related hazards and machine-related hazards This knowledge may be useful when designing prevention for occupational injury. [less ▲]

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See detailGender and age disparities in the associations of occupational factors with alcohol abuse and smoking in the French working population
Legleye, Stephane; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Revue d'Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique = Epidemiology and Public Health (2011), 59

Background. – This study assessed the associations of short-term employment, physical and psychological occupational demands, and job dissatisfaction with alcohol abuse (using the Audit-C test) and daily ... [more ▼]

Background. – This study assessed the associations of short-term employment, physical and psychological occupational demands, and job dissatisfaction with alcohol abuse (using the Audit-C test) and daily smoking among working French men and women in different age groups. Methods. – The sample included 13,241 working people, 18–29, 30–39, and 40–59-years-old, randomly selected in France and interviewed by phone. Occupation, type of employment, physical demands, psychological demands, job dissatisfaction, gender, age, educational level, and income were considered. Data were analyzed with logistic models. Results. – Alcohol abuse affected 20.4% of men and 7.5% of women; smoking 32.1% and 24.2%, respectively. Their patterns of association with the occupational factors varied with gender and age. Job dissatisfaction was the leading factor among young men (adjusted odds ratio for alcohol abuse and smoking: 1.71 and 2.02), whereas short-term employment was the leading factor among young women (1.69 and 1.58), this pattern being reversed in older generations. The pattern of associations of physical and psychological demands with outcomes is more complex, but overall psychological demands were more important for women (especially the younger ones) than men, especially for smoking (OR > 1.6). Smoking within 5 min after waking was much more common among male and female smokers with these occupational factors, suggesting a potential dependency. Conclusions. – Workers with short-term employment and occupational demands are subject to a higher risk for alcohol abuse and smoking with high gender and age disparities. Gender and age should be considered when designing measures to prevent substance abuse related to occupation. [less ▲]

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